History and Literature in the Elizabethan era : The Renaissance

Historical and literary changes that took place at the time of Queen Elizabeth

The Renaissance in England somehow awoke from the long sleep of the Dark Ages. Europe has always been an inactive and deteriorating society that has so far benefited from the promise of material and spiritual prosperity. There was a well-held belief that humankind is making progress toward perfection in the pursuit of a perfect life.

Renaissance means rebirth. The fourteenth to sixteenth centuries in Europe saw a break from understanding the subtle ways of life. Reputable landowners are losing their grandeur over the lower classes, as opportunities for growth and prosperity become evident in growing urban areas. As in Italy, the educated class regained the grace and strength of their old, pagan customs. Greek and Roman mythology and philosophy were the catalysts for a new wave of artistic flow. Sensible people have embraced the line of reasoning known as “mankind,” in which humans believed that they could be perfect in the absolute sense. The undisputed spirit of the times was a hope, a burning belief that life was developing for the first time in anyone's memory. Indeed, the vision of the Dark Ages and the Black Death was very new in the minds of the people and the promise of moving forward and departing from such horrific events was sincerely accepted. Several threads spanned the entire European Renaissance together within three centuries. The strong rise of nationalism, coupled with the early prosperity of democracy, was a common feature throughout the Continent. The first ideas of the middle class began to gain power in the cities, as trade and commerce became full-fledged businesses of their own. Fearing the spread of bad memories from afar, and people longing to leave their homes and see the whole world, international and global trade began to grow. In terms of products and resources, ideas also spread from one nation to another. Venice fashions quickly became fashionable in Paris and eventually in London. Speaking of the British Islands, the well-known practice of privileged young men who “travelled” the continent began during the Renaissance. The ideas these travellers bring back to their homelands will influence culture, government, literature, and fashion for many years thereafter. Until the world views Britain as a wilderness, devoid of culture and refinement. Even the English language did not get the status quo. The greatest English philosopher Thomas More published his Utopia in Latin, and the English translation appeared decades later. The most innovative in the Renaissance era was the printing press, which began in about 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg. New presses had long existed, but Gutenberg's design magnified the efficiency of printing in a way that permanently transformed the world of art, literature, and ideas. His greatest invention was the rapid production of portable typesets, meaning that new text sheets could be laid out and printed with much less effort than before. The renewable printing press allowed for faster and cheaper recycling of work. Indeed, it is not uncommon for literacy rates to see a modest increase in the decades following the construction of the media. The religious upheaval is known as the Protestant Reformation would not have been possible without the ability to make multiple copies of the text quickly and with little effort. Martin Luther's famous "95 Theses" spread like wildfire on Continental Europe. More than simple production, printing completely transformed the economy into a society of learning and learning. Now the books were no longer high places, and luckily. The effect of having easily accessible literature was almost as deep as the democratic declaration of the written word. Another overlooked feature of this new program is the effect it has on the learning process. Earlier, someone was reading a document aloud to a group of people. Traditionally, they memorize Bible stories or jokes and pass them on. The sudden increase in print, collaborative reading, and oral tradition gradually led to quiet, individual reading. At the time, quiet reading was considered unusual, and some observers were suspicious. However, the image of the one who joined the text in one trip to translate the image of the Renaissance. All nations in Western Europe experienced the rebirth of the Renaissance. In different nations, even in different cities in the same nation, the manifestations of Renaissance art and thinking were different. While in one region, buildings can be a visual aid for new creative forces, in other regions books can take a more prominent position. Everywhere, though, the rebirth of love and art has had a profound effect on the world around us. Although the Italian Renaissance is more familiar to readers, the Renaissance England edition of the text contradicts anything else of the time. Over the course of 1500-1660, the English Renaissance produced some of the world's most famous manuscripts. The spirit of hope, the infinite power, and the English stoic alphabet are all combined to produce first-order books. At the same time, England graduated from land not recognized by the “pagans” as the seat of power and commercial influence. This power was naturally translated into books that were bold, sweeping, innovative, and trending. Poets tried to form, and the actors revived and revived ancient Greek and Roman cultures. The most prominent types of English texts at the time of rebirth were poetry and drama. Among the various forms of poetry, which one may have found in England in the sixteenth century were lyric, leggy, grief, and the clergy. Toward the end of the English Civilization, John Milton composed his unique Paradise Lost, considered one of the greatest poems in the language. Expectations of style, theme, tone, and details of the plot were well established for each type of poem. Even a certain event required some kind of poetry, and they all understood these tried and true circles. Most of the time, the poetry of the day was intended to accompany the music. In any case, critics agree that the main purpose of the English Renaissance verse was to combine beauty with truth in words. English poetry of the day was popular, repetitive, and often betrayed by the subtle intellect. One factor that used to distinguish English letters from the Continent was the willingness to mix different types of hodgepodge, the experiment story. This style of imitation is shown in Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queen, a long poem that combines elements of love, tragedy, heroes, and shepherding into a fun and cohesive experience. The English court life and the views of the esteemed authorities greatly influenced artistic direction. Intimacy with a king or queen was desirable, but also dangerous. These letters show that court officials were extremely clever at their use of language, using double definitions, and cunningly defending their interests. Conflicts of words that a person may have heard in court naturally paved the way for poems and theatrical plays. Shakespeare's vivid form of communication, for example, had its genetic code in the English royal court. In the realm of drama, no one was more like William Shakespeare in terms of variety, quantity, and complexity of language. His story was a play on drama, from ancient Greek and Roman mythology to modern mythology of unrequited love. Shakespeare is known for his ability to distinguish between humour and tragedy, from a complex character study to a simple-hearted farce. He is equally honoured for the beautiful official structure reflected in all his plays. This extends beyond actions and scenes but also involves the emotions and the mind of the game's actions. More than anyone else, he elevated the English language to a level of splendour that previous generations did not think possible. Shakespeare’s nets show oral pyrotechnics that is rarely seen today, with images painted on top of each other in the form of a collage of nerves. Surprisingly, very few details about the life of a playwright are known today. Her uncertain history has led to many conspiracy theories, even to the point of questioning whether she was single. One of the great difficulties in providing creativity in any part of ancient literature is that copyright, in the modern sense of the word, did not exist. The author did not have his own names; the unpredictable nature of the Renaissance Theater in England gradually emerged from the attraction of the local festival to the true cultural centre. During the Middle Ages, nomadic actors' crews played role-playing games, especially live sermons, to entertain provincial audiences. In 1567, the Red Lion was built on the outskirts of London, one of the first commercial theatres. Right from the start, the court had its opponents. The local people despised the crowd and the noise of the famous houses, tourist attractions, and brothels that inevitably erupted nearby. Many viewed the theatre as an invitation to laziness, with children leaving their studies and staff leaving work to watch the games. Some find the story to be boring and bad. The Puritans, in particular, directed their barriers directly to the Elizabethan section. A growing number of Protestant groups, the Puritans feared that the dress and grooming of the theatre could lead to sexual misconduct. The sponsorship program was one way for talented and talented people to feed themselves. The manager was a wealthy independent freelancer who tasted good things and had a lot of money and attention from the artists who cared for that taste. In some cases, the sponsor would circulate poets and actors as mere hypocrisy. On the other hand, many zealots had a deep and genuine appreciation for the art of creation. In the view of the hungry artist who reaped the benefits of such giving, it did not matter in any way. Freedom to pursue human art to the end would certainly be a blessing in England during the 16th century. Real manuscripts, which have survived over time, testify to the value of the rich man's blessings. Usually, artists donate their works to managers who provide funding for their production. Alternatively, the author may seek the favour of a sponsor who is yet to release their wallet strings. There are even accounts for a single piece of literature that has been redesigned and distributed to several potential buyers, a more comprehensive approach that reflects the business acumen required for Renaissance artists. In many cases, artists had to devote much of their time to secular work in another lucrative profession and pursue their art as a hobby. Four hundred years have done little to change that unfortunate fact. The infinite hope and spirit of the Renaissance humanity could not continue indefinitely. By the middle of the seventeenth century, the search for human perfection had given way to decay, criticism, and import, which could have hindered art for a long time to come. In England, the rise of Puritanism, which itself is a branch of the Reformation philosophy put the brakes on the pursuit of knowledge and aesthetic endeavours.

Writers of the Renaissance Period

  • Thomas Campion (1567-1620)
  • John Donne (1572-1631)
  • Ben Jonson (1572-1637)
  • William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
  • Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593)
  • John Milton (1608-1674)
  • Spenser Edmund (1552-1599)
  • Sir Philip Sydney (1554-1586)
  • Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
  • Sir Thomas Wyatt the Elder (1503-1542)
  • Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618)
  • John Calvin (1509-1564)
  • Mary Wroth (ca. 1587- ca. 1651)

Here is what you can learn in grammar usages about diseases.

Grammar and Diseases

Here is what you can learn in grammar usages about diseases.

Recently, in several articles, I came across the points, which might be helpful and easy to remember for exam tips.

Use of articles

  1. She is suffering from the fever. (wrong) (no article needed before the name of a disease).
  2. She is suffering from the measles. (right) (because the name of disease appears in plural form.)

In the above-mentioned sentences, we see that use of an article before the name of a disease is wrong. Because if any disease name appears singular we never use the article ‘the’ but if in case there comes any name of the disease in plural form there we use the article ‘the’.

Use of fixed prepositions

If want to say that some died just because of a disease we say:

  • Died of + name of a disease.


  1. He has died of the corona. (Because this is the name of the virus.)
  2. He has died of cancer.

However, if want to say that the particular person or an animal is suffering because of a disease we say:

  • Suffering from + name of the disease.


  1. He is suffering from fever
  2. She is suffering from cold.


Does John Donne trust on womankind?

Does John Donne trust on womankind?

John Donne, a man of romantic nature. He spent his life with several rich women and prostitutes in London. Perhaps he had gone through experiences of distrust. Therefore, he found himself sceptical towards beautiful women. He had shown his cynical attitude through his song “Go and Catch a Falling Star’. His poem came to in light 1597 In 'Songs and Sonnets', notably, he was unmarried at that time. In this poem, he shows his great distrust towards women. To favour his arguments he includes many examples of improbable tasks, which no one can do completely.


Go and catch a falling star,

Get with child a mandrake root,

Tell me where all past years are,

Or who cleft the devil's foot,

Teach me to hear mermaids singing,

Or to keep off envy's stinging,

And find

What wind

Serves to advance an honest mind.

If thou be'st born to strange sights,

Things invisible to see,

Ride ten thousand days and nights,

Till age snow white hairs on thee,

Thou, when thou return'st, wilt tell me,

All strange wonders that befell thee,

And swear,

No where

Lives a woman true, and fair.

If thou find'st one, let me know,

Such a pilgrimage were sweet;

Yet do not, I would not go,

Though at next door we might meet;

Though she were true, when you met her,

And last, till you write your letter,

Yet she

Will be

False, ere I come, to two, or three.


In the poem, the poet expresses his great distrust towards womankind through a list of exaggerated tasks such as to catch a falling star, to beget a child on the mandrake root, or to tell of where all the past years have gone, to tear the Devil’s foot, or how to hear the mermaid songs.

Subject Matter

This famous song is an example of metaphysical poetry that came out in the collection named ‘Songs and Sonnets’. The poem states the idea of distrust in women.

Go and catch a falling star,

Get with child a mandrake root,

Tell me where all past years are,

Or who cleft the devil's foot,

Teach me to hear mermaids singing,

Or to keep off envy's stinging,

And find

What wind

Serves to advance an honest mind.

Stanza 1

In this stanza, the poet suggests doing some tasks that are completely impossible such as to go and catch a falling star. Moreover, get a child out of the mandrake roots. Then he asks to let him know if someone can where all past years have gone. The poet asks if anyone exists who can tear devil’s foot. Here, the poet argues that if someone can then teach him how to listen to the mermaids' song. the poet says to tell him how anyone can get rid of envy and what type of environment and circumstances make a man more honest and pure.

If thou be'st born to strange sights,

Things invisible to see,

Ride ten thousand days and nights,

Till age snow white hairs on thee,

Thou, when thou return'st, wilt tell me,

All strange wonders that befell thee,

And swear,

No where

Lives a woman true, and fair.

Stanza 2 

In the second stanza, the poet asks his friend by exaggerating his ideas that if someone is born with magical powers whose eyes can see through everything and everywhere or anyone, who can ride for a long-distance of ten thousand days and nights do this until he becomes old and when he returns from the search expedition tell him whatever he hs seen through this journey. By the word strange, the poet means if anyone has seen the trustworthy and beautiful woman anywhere. The poet completely distrusts women so he says to swear if anyone claims that he has met a beautiful and trustworthy woman Because as he thinks that there is no place in this world where live a beautiful and trustworthy woman.

If thou find'st one, let me know,

Such a pilgrimage were sweet;

Yet do not, I would not go,

Though at next door we might meet;

Though she were true, when you met her,

And last, till you write your letter,

Yet she

Will be

False, ere I come, to two, or three.

Stanza 3        

The poet further demanded if you have found even a single trustworthy and beautiful lady let him know about her place because where she lives the place must be a pilgrimage and the poet wishes to visit the place. The poet wishes to meet such a woman. Immediately, the poet forbids his friend, please do not tell him about her, because as he thinks, while he met her she might be pure and true but until he writes a letter to the poet, she may turn into an impure woman.

Related Questions

  • What is metaphysical poetry? Discuss John Donne is a metaphysical poet based on your reading of his poems.
  • Define hyperbole Example of the hyperbole from the poem. What are the impossible tasks mentioned in the poem?
  • The images of Donne are usually condemned because they are far-fetched would you agree with this view discuss with the references of the poem?


Tennyson as a representative Victorian Poet.

Alfred Lord Tennyson was a true representative of The Victorian Age

Alfred Lord Tennyson was a true representative of The Victorian Age, the Age of reformation. England named this age after the name of Queen Victoria. England witnessed growth science and industry during this period. The reforms in this period not only affected the social, political but also arts. He was born at Somersby, Lincolnshire in England in 1809. Changes that occurred during this age affected greatly the works by Tennyson. He selected the subjects from medieval legends to classical myths and from domestic lives to the observations from nature. John Keats and other romantic poets greatly inspired his works. He was the master of rhythm. We have seen In ‘Break, Break, Break’ he emphasized the relentless sadness of the subject matter. He turned on the musical quality of words to make it sensitive. The poet lived in a period of scientific advancement and we can see conflict between scientific theories and religious faith. Tennyson represented the Victorian poetry and he preferred dramatic monologue as a mode of expression.


  • Lady Clara Vere de Vere (1832)
  • St. Simeon Stylites (1833)
  • From Poems (1842):
  • The Two Voices (1834)
  • "Ulysses" (1833)
  • From The Princess; A Medley (1847)
  • In Memoriam A.H.H. (1849)
  • Ring Out, Wild Bells (1850)
  • The Eagle (1851)
  • From Maud; A Monodrama (1855/1856)
  • The Charge of the Light Brigade (1854)
  • From Enoch Arden and Other Poems (1862/1864)
  • Flower in the crannied wall (1869)
  • The Window – Song cycle with Arthur Sullivan (1871)
  • Harold (1876)
  • Idylls of the King (composed 1833–1874)
  • Becket (1884)
  • Locksley Hall Sixty Years after (1886)
  • Crossing the Bar (1889)
  • The Foresters – a play with incidental music by Arthur Sullivan (1891)

Break Break Break contains Tennyson's feelings feelings of nostalgia.

Break, Break, Break

Break Break Break describes feelings of loss. The poem has a strong biographical connection with Alfred Lord Tennyson's life. The poem contains his feelings of melancholy along with his feelings of nostalgia. The poet wrote Break, Break, Break during early 1835, and published in, 1842. This is an elegy that describes the poet’s feelings of loss after his friend, Arthur Hallam died. The poem is extremely simple in form and color.


Tennyson’s loss is both personal and profound. There is a cyclone of pain rising in the heart of the poet, a storm similar to that of the sea. WhereasThe angler’s boy and the sailor lads are merry. Nevertheless, the poet stands grief-stricken, as the memories of the past gather in his mind.

Break, break, break,

On thy cold gray stones, O Sea!

And I would that my tongue could utter

The thoughts that arise in me.

In the first stanza, the poet says that the torment of his heart as the death of his friend is tremendous. There is a struggle like the struggle of the sea waves on the stormy shores. The question before him is how he can express adequately the thoughts, which occur in his mind.

O, well for the fisherman's boy,

That he shouts with his sister at play!

O, well for the sailor lad,

That he sings in his boat on the bay!

In the second stanza, the poet says that others' lives are full of joy as for the angler’s son and daughter who are laughing and shouting merrily. The poet, on the other hand, is entirely in a melancholic mood. He is restless and grief-stricken at the death of his friend. The poet admires the innocent joy of these youngsters but he is sorry because he cannot share it. The lad of the sailor is also happy and sings in his boat face to face with the magnificence of the sea. However, such joy the poet cannot enjoy.

And the stately ships go on

To their haven under the hill;

But O for the touch of a vanish'd hand,

And the sound of a voice that is still!

In the third stanza, the poet says that the majestic ships are reaching their destinations under the hill. The poet however has no definite plan for his life and he misses his friend Hallam whose voice and touch was so soft and tender. The grief of the poet is terribly intense. The poet mingled the beauty of sound and the beauty of sense. They are nothing but grief personified and they make grief eternal.

Break, break, break

At the foot of thy crags, O Sea!

But the tender grace of a day that is dead

Will never come back to me.

In the last stanza, the poet asks the waves to strike against the seashore and thus repeat this joyful experience, but the poet cannot recall the experience, which he enjoyed earlier in the company of his friend. God had been very kind in blessing him with the tender friendship of Hallam.

How did Shakespeare try to immortalize his Friend W.H.?

Like as the Waves 

In most of the sonnets, Shakespeare referred to his friend a Mr. W.H. though his friend’s Identity is not cleared anywhere that whoever he may be. He might be Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, or Sir Philipp Sydney’s nephew, William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke.

Shakespeare is talking about the same friend W.H. in Like as The Waves. In the sonnet, the poet is saying that his verse in praise of his friend will make him, immortal despite the cruel hands of time. This poem seems inspired by Golding’s translation of Ovid’s 

Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore,

The very first opening line of the sonnet is introduced with the applied figure of speech simile. Where the poet compares the lives with the waves that come out of from the bottom of the sea and end at the shore.

So do our minutes hasten to their end;

In the second line, the poet said in his positive agreement format that the same way our lives within time continue and end. 

Each changing place with that, which goes before,

He says that nothing has a permanent place in this universe a thing comes and another takes its place after some time. 

In sequent toil, all forwards do contend.

A person in his life span works so hard to achieve the things that he desired all his life and he is feeling satisfied.

Nativity, once in the main of light,

The word nativity refers here to the birth when someone bore and become aware of his life.   

Crawls to maturity, wherewith being crown’d,

A person in his life after birth slowly grows, learns, achieves, and sometimes fails. Sometimes times award him with achievements.

Crooked elipses ’gainst his glory fight,

Time has its own way to perform its duty. The poet says that some bad planets with bad effects can hard and destroy a person‘s life. He has to face various obstacles during his lifetime.

And Time that gave doth now his gift confound.

A time comes in everyone’s life when he feels confused himself. Nobody can understand the ways of life and the way time plays a role in our lives.

Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth

It was time itself that gave us youth and now the time is taking it back. Time is always a continuous process that never stops and never ends.

And delves the parallels in beauty’s brow,

At a time the beauty of youth goes away and we become old and ugly with wrinkle everywhere on face same like earth looks when we delve it with plow. 

Rhyme Scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, gg 

The contribution of female poets of Romantic Age

The contribution of female poets of Romantic Age

Elizabeth Inchbald (1753-1821) 

English novelist, actor, and playwright, Elizabeth Inchbald was born in a small village called Standing field near Bury St. Edmunds in Suffolk, England in 1753. She was the eighth child of John Simpson, a farmer, and his wife Mary. Inchbald’s father dies early living the family to the care of her mother. Inchbald went to London in 1772 to seek her fortune on the stage. She struggled to find work because of her speech impediment. She married actor Joseph Inchbald in June 1772 and began working seriously as an actor. She made her first dramatic appearance on 4th September 1772, as the character Cordelia opposite her husband‘s King Lear in Shakespeare’s King Lear.


  • Mogul Tale or the Descent of the Balloon (1784)
  • Appearance is against them (1785)
  • I’ll Tell You What 1785
  • The Widow’s Vow 1786


  • A simple Story (1791)
  • Nature and Art (1796)

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)

British Feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft was born In Spatial fields, London in 1759. Her Father Edward John Wollstonecraft was a tyrannical husband, who bullied his wife, Elizabeth Dixon, into a state of servitude. A weaver by profession, her father left his work, mismanaged his share of family inheritance, and engaged in futile attempts to become a gentleperson. After her mother’s death, Wollstonecraft left home in search of her own livelihood.


  • Thoughts on the Education of Daughters (1787)
  • Original Stories from Real Life (1788)
  • Vindication of the Rights of Men (1790)
  • Mary A Fiction (1788)

Mary Wollstonecraft‘s Vindication of the rights of women published in 1792 is considered as one of the earliest texts of Western Feminism. It is partly structured as a response to several works on women education and female conduct written by men during the latter half of the 18th century, among the most significant of these was Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Emile or On Educations. She states that since childhood, women are taught to believe that they are inferior to men. They are taught to be docile and submissive, Characteristics such as meekness and self–sacrifice are included as feminine virtues, which lead to the subjugation of women.

Mary Hays (1759- 1843)

English novelist and feminist, Mary was born in Southward, Near London. She was born into a Baptist family to John and Elizabeth Hays. She lost her father when she was very young.


  • Cursory Remarks on an Enquiry into the expediency and propriety of public worship 1792
  • Memoires of Emma Courtney (1792)
  • Appeal to Men of Great Britain In Behalf Of Women (1796)

Fanny Burney

English novelist and diarist Fanny was born as Frances Burney in King’s: Lynn, Norfolk, England in 1752. She was the daughter of Dr. Charles Burney, a musical historian and Estate Sleepe, her mother died, when she was only 9. Her father later married Elizabeth Allen, The wealthy widow of King’s Lynn wine merchant, who proved to be an overbearing stepmother. She was a writer, composing odes, plays, songs, farces, and poems at an early age.


  • The History of Caroline Evelyn (1767)
  • Evelina: Or The History of a Young Lady’s Entrance into the World (1778)
  • Cecilia: Or, Memoires of an Heiress (1782)  


  • Brief reflections relative to the French Emigrants Clergy (1793)
  • Memoires of Doctor Burney (1832)


  • The Witlings (1779)
  • Edwy and Elgiva, (1790)
  • Love and Fashion 1799
  • The Woman Hater 1800-1801

Maria Edgeworth 1768 -1849

Anglo –Irish novelist Maria was born in Blackbourtan, Oxford shire, England in 1768. She was the second child of Richard Lovell Edgeworth and Anna Maria. Her father was a writer, scientist, inventor, and educationist, who married four times and had twenty-four children.


  • Letters for Literary Ladies (1795)
  • Castle Rack-rent (1800)
  • Belinda (1801)
  • Leonora (1806)
  • Patronage (1814)
  • Harrington (1817)

Jane Austin 1775 -1817

English novelist was born at St Stevenson Rectory in Hampshire, England in 1775; she was the seventh child of reverend George Austen and Cassandra Leigh.


  • Sense and Sensibility (1811)
  • Pride and Prejudice (1813)
  • Mansfield Park (1814)
  • Emma (1815)


Shakespeare’s plays are not gardens but a jungle.

Shakespeare’s plays are not gardens but a jungle.

William Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. He wrote most of his plays as ‘quarto texts’. A few of his plays were printed in his lifetime, though they appeared more voluminously after his death. His first collection of works as printed in 1623. We can say Shakespeare’s plays are not gardens but jungle in many senses such as in a variety of genres and themes and characters.

Romantic Comedies

His most comedies are the romantic type. The main theme of his comedies is love. In his comedies, a lover usually experiences a set of obstacles before they united. All conflicts get resolved at the end. His romantic comedies are all set in an imaginative world far away from the dull and dreary world of everyday life. There is a cardinal characteristic of Shakespeare’s romantic world of the union of realism, fantasy, and philosophy.” With humor, Shakespeare deals with serious issues.   

  •     All’s  Well That Ends Well
  •     The Comedy Of Errors
  •     Love’s Labour Lost
  •     The Merchant Of Venice  
  •     The Merry Wives Of Windsor


Shakespearean tragedy is primarily concerned with one person the tragic hero. A tragic hero is a person of the high social estate, raised above the rest. He undergoes suffering because of his tragic flaw or the error of judgment.

  •     Romeo and Juliet
  •     King Lear
  •     Othello
  •     Macbeth
  •     Hamlet
  •     Cymbeline

Roman plays

All these plays are set in Rome deal with similar subjects and make use of the same source- North’s translation of Plutarch’s lives. Dominika Klenova states that Shakespeare uses his source material as a framework, which helps him develop his own conception of treating drama out of biography. He also develops his idea of the Roman character and elaborates on him at both the ‘national ‘and individual level.

  •     Julius Caesar
  •     Antony and Cleopatra
  •     Coriolanus

Problem plays

While most of his plays fall into the above-cited categories of tragedies, comedies, or histories, there are some plays of Shakespeare do not neatly fit into any of these categories.

  •     All is well that ends well
  •     Measure for measures
  •     Troilus and Cressida

Historical plays

According to Michael Hattaway, Shakespeare’s history plays are related to history mainly by offering representations of historical figures and the creation of theater out of historical events. Shakespeare’s primary source for his history plays was Raphael Holinshed Chronicle of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

  •     Richard II
  •     Richard III
  •     Henry IV
  •     Henry V

Did Shakespeare commit mistakes in his use of English ?

 It will be our mistake if we say that Shakespeare committed mistakes in his use of English. 

Difference between Shakespeare's English and Modern English.

Language must have changed in the course of a long time. Elizabethan English shows the style of old English. I.E. inflected English had case-ending for the nouns, terminations for the verbs, and the like. by the end of the 16th century, most of these inflections had ended, though some remained as it is, and the influence of the earlier inflected stage still affected the language. often when we interrogate into the history of some Elizabethan idioms which seem to us curious we find that it is a relic of an old usage.

there are numerous cases in the poet's works where a verb in the present tense has the inflection- s, though the subject is plural: cf the following lines in Richard II,

"These high wild hills and rough uneven ways
Draws out our miles, and makes them wearisome."

The verb 'draws' and 'makes' appear to be singular: but probably each is plural, in agreement with its plural antecedents hills and ways: s-es being the plural inflections of the present tense used in the Northan dialect of old English. In the southern dialect, the inflection was eth: in the midland en. when Shakespeare was born all three forms were getting obsolete: but all three are found in his works, eth, and en very rarely, es or s many times. 

A dramatist makes his character lively, and tells his story through their mouth: he is not like a historian who writes the story in his own words. the English of a play which meant to be spoken must not be judged by the same standard as English of a History which is meant to be read. for considering how much more correct and more regular in style. in speaking, we begin a sentence one way and we finish it another, some fresh idea striking us or some interruption occurring. speech is liable to change constantly as swiftly turns the thoughts. 


Edmund Spenser was patronized by-

By whom Edmund Spenser was patronized? 

Edmund Spenser contributed 1568 a number of Visions and Sonnets from (Petrarch and Du Bellay) to an edifying Theatre for Wordings'. Spenser obtained in 1578, through his college friend G. Harvey, a place in Leicester's household, and become acquainted with Sir Philip Sidney. With Sidney, Dyer, and others, formed a literary club styled 'Areopagus'. In 1579 he began the 'Faerie Queene' and published his 'Shepherd's Calendar'. In 1580, he was appointed secretary to Lord Grey De Wilton, then going to Ireland as lord deputy, and acquired Kilcolman Castle in county Cork. Here he settled and occupied himself with literary artwork, writing his elegy ' Astrphel or Sir Philip Sidney and preparing the Faerie Queene for the press, three books of this work being entrusted to the printer on the poet's visit to London in 1589. He returned to Kilcolman and penned ‘Colin Clouts Come Home Againe’ printed 1595. The success of the Faerie Queene led the printer, Ponsonby to issue in 1591 his minor Verses and Juvenilia, in part, rewritten, as ‘Complaints’.

Changes In English language in Historical Events 1

Changes that occurred in English Language after Norman Conquest

The Norman Conquest changed the whole course of English language. French became the language of social prestige and status. French words entered the English lexicon. More than 10000 French words found their way into English words associated with government, law, art, literature, food, and many other aspects of life.

English language gradually disappeared as a written language, which resulted in the removal of borders on development of language; grammar became simplified as people started finding the simplest way to talk with people, who did not speak English as their first language.

 The pronunciation of English changed to some extent under the influence of French, as did the spelling. E.g. the old English ‘cw’, ‘sc’ and ‘c’ became ‘qu’, ‘sh’ and ‘ch’. The spelling of cwen changed into queen, scip to ship and scolde to should, English grammar took on  a few French structures , such as putting in adjectives after nouns in some expressions – attorney general, secretary general, surgeon general, . Since, Englishmen became desirous of learning the language of the ruling class, a large number of them learned French or Latin.

However, the Normans conquers on the other hand, had to learn English and translate it into Latin, since there was the need to understand English law , as a result , this period  saw an upsurge in the translations of English Material n to Latin.

DEATH BE NOT PROUD - A bright example of metaphysical poetry by John Donne.


This poem a great example of argument with an abstract form, which is known as personification that is death in this poem. It appeared in the collection “Holly Sonnets”


Death, be not proud, though some have called thee

Mighty and dreadful, for thou art not so;

For those whom thou think'st thou dost overthrow

Die not, poor Death, nor yet canst thou kill me.

From rest and sleep, which but thy pictures be,

Much pleasure; then from thee much more must flow,

And soonest our best men with thee do go,

Rest of their bones, and soul's delivery.

Thou art slave to fate, chance, kings, and desperate men,

And dost with poison, war, and sickness dwell,

And poppy or charms can make us sleep as well

And better than thy stroke; why swell'st thou then?

One short sleep past, we wake eternally

And death shall be no more; Death, thou shalt die.


Simplified Explanation

In this sonnet, Poet is asking to death a question. In very first line of the poem we get to know that poet has used capital letter for the word “Death” which means death has been personified here as a living person. Therefore, it is now possible to talk with death. So he asks death why does she proud on her. Of course, we find in living word some call her mighty some name her powerful. In addition, it is true that she is inevitable. Nevertheless, poet does not take her as powerful and mighty. Moreover, he says to death if you think that, you have killed so many of us are not killed. Poet says Death that she cannot kill him. Here he refers her as poor and he is demeaning death in this line. Poet compares death to rest and sleep. He thinks death is nothing more than a sleep or a state of rest. He says to Death you are much more pleasure some for people than sleep. When you kill someone there remains only bones and soul reaches some another place as soon as someone dies. This idea of the poet resembles something like that have been described in Hindu philosophy in The Bhagwad Geeta that soul is immortal only body dies. No one living or nonliving can harm soul. Soul delivers immediately acquires a new body. 

Poet again humiliates death. He says you are a slave to fate, kings, and chances. As in real life, we find that death comes through many kinds of excuses sometimes in the form of murder by goons; accident, sometimes and punishment by kings or judiciary, sometimes in face of disease or pandemic in some cases humans intentionally choose death as an excuse of escape from worldly matters by the means of suicide. 

As we have seen in earlier lines poet compares death to sleep or rest. In a life, many persons consume narcotic drugs, wines, and herbs such as opium; Poet says that their effects are more powerful to sleep someone than death. Poet scorns Death why she feels pride on her. 

In concluding couplet poet has said that whenever someone dies he does not die but dies the Death itself. Because soon after the moment we become a soul and soul is immortal. So here, poet says to Death that you die; we do not when you come to us. 


Francis Bacon – English statesman and philosopher; precursor of British empiricism; advocated inductive reasoning (1561-1626) .

Francis Bacon

Brief Bios

Francis was born on January 22, 1561 in London. His father Sir Nicholas Bacon was a lord Keeper of great Seal and mother as the daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke. In the age of 13, he went to Trinity College, Cambridge. On June 27, 1576, he was admitted to Gray’s Inn. Bacon’s stay in Paris also gave him an opportunity to acquire a high degree of proficiency in the French language. His father died in 1579. 

The first edition of Bacon’s “Essay” was published in 1597 He managed to obtain Knighthood July 1603. In 1604, he was confirmed-learned counsel. In the autumn of 1605, he published his Advancement of Learning. In the summer of 1606, he got married to Alice Barnham. In June 1607, he obtained legal office and became solicitor General. In 1607, he wrote “Cogitata et Visa”. In 1608, he wrote "In Felicem memoriam Elizabethae". In 1609 appeared the Wisdom of the Ancients. New editions of Essays were published in 1607 and 1612. In March 1617, bacon was appointed Lord Keeper .In October 1620 he published the Novum Organum. In 1621, he was created Viscount St. Albans. 

In March 1626, driving one day near Highgate and deciding on impulse to discover whether snow would delay the process of putrefaction, he stopped his carriage, purchased a hen, and with his own hands stuffed it with snow. As a result, he was caught a chill and was taken to house of the Earl of Arundel, where on April 19, 1626 he died of bronchitis.

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