When and where do use capital letters?

Generally, we write each letter of the English alphabet as a small letter (abc...) or as a large or capital letter (ABC...). However, we cannot letters always in same manner. It is not good and right to write whole sentences in capitals. A sentence or paragraph written in capitals is very difficult to read.

When do we Use Capital Letters?

1. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letter for the personal pronoun 'I':

What can I do?

2. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letter to begin a sentence or to begin speech:

The man arrived. He sat down.

Suddenly Mary asked, "Do you love me?"

3. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letters for many abbreviations and acronyms:

G.M.T. or GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)

N.A.T.O. or NATO  (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

M.A. Master of Arts

4. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letter for the names of days of the week, months of the year, holidays:

Monday

January

Diwali

5. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letter for names of countries, languages & nationalities, religions:

India, Pakistan

Japanese, English

Hinduism, Buddhism

6. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letter for people's names and titles:

Ram, William Shakespeare

Professor Jones, Dr Smith

Captain Kirk, King Henry VIII

7. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letter for trademarks and names of companies and other organizations:

Amazon , Apple

Microsoft Corporation, Toyota

the United Nations, the Red Cross

8. We use the first letter of the spelling capital letter for places and monuments:

London, Paris, the Latin Quarter

the Eiffel Tower, St Paul's Cathedral

Buckingham Palace, the White House

Oxford Street, Fifth Avenue

Jupiter, Mars, Sirius

Asia, the Middle East, the North Pole

9. We use the first letter of the spelling for names of vehicles like ships, trains and spacecraft:

The Titanic

The Orient Express, the Flying Scotsman

10. We use the first letter of the spelling for titles of books, poems, songs, plays, films etc: If it contains more than one word, use the first letter capital in each of the words.

War And Peace

If, Futility

Like a Virgin

The Taming of the Shrew

The Lion King, Gone With The Wind

11. We use capital letters (sometimes!) for headings, titles of articles, books etc, and newspaper headlines:

WINGS OF FIRE

Chapter 2:  WATER


Alphabets in (English Language)

Alphabets in (English Language)

Latin alphabet also called the Roman alphabet, the standard script of the English language and the languages of most of Europe and those areas settled by Europeans.

Total 26




Cursive is a style of writing  in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster, in contrast, to block letters. 






Phonetics Introduction - Why do spellings appear different from what we pronounce in English?

The study of linguistic sounds and symbols is called Phonetics.

The study of systems of sounds, often the sound system of a particular language is called Phonology

Phonetics

Linguistic sounds are produced by pushing air from the lungs out through the mouth, sometimes by way of the nasal cavity. The movement of the air can then be manipulated by the anatomy of the mouth and throat to produce different sounds. In the actual writing, the same sound may often be spelled in different ways.

Linguists use a phonetic alphabet called the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

Many IPA letters are the same as those of the English alphabet, so we place IPA spellings in square brackets to indicate that they are phonetic spellings.

Consonants Sounds

Consonants are produced by restricting and then releasing the flow of air in three ways: vibrating the vocal cords, changing the part of the anatomy, which restricts the airflow, and changing the extent to which the airflow is restricted.

Consonants with relatively little vibration of the vocal cords are called voiceless consonants.

Consonants with relatively more vibration of the vocal cords are called voiced.

Consonants fall into the following categories, depending on what part of the anatomy is used to restrict the airflow:

Labial                   Airflow is restricted with the lips.

Dental                   Airflow is restricted with the teeth.

Labiodentals        Airflow is restricted with the top teeth on the bottom lip (if both lips are used the 

sound is called bilabial).

Alveolar                Airflow is restricted by placing the tongue on the hard plate (alveolus) behind the 

top front teeth.

Palatal                  Airflow is restricted by placing the tongue on the soft palate behind the alveolus.

Velar                     Airflow is restricted by placing the tongue far back in the mouth.

Glottal                  airflow is restricted by tightening the folds in the vocal cords (glottis).

Consonants can also be categorized by the extent to which the airflow is restricted:

1.      Stop                     Airflow is stopped and released quickly.

2.      Fricative              Airflow is released gradually.

3.      Affricate              Airflow is stopped and released gradually.

4.      Nasal                    Airflow is channeled through the nasal cavity.

5.      Liquid                  Air flow is channeled around the sides of the tongue.

6.      Glide                    Airflow is only partially restricted (these sounds are often called semi-vowels).

Vowels

Vowels are produced by directing the flow of air into different parts of the mouth. They can be adjusted by changing the position of the tongue, by rounding of the lips, and by the degree of opening of the mouth.

All vowels are voiced.

The position of the tongue can be described in terms of how far forward the tongue is and how high it is.

Vowels are categorized as follows, depending on the position of the tongue:

1.      Front        The tongue is in the front of the mouth.

2.      Central     The tongue is further back in the mouth.

3.      Back         The tongue is in the back of the mouth.

4.      High          The tongue is high in the mouth.

5.      Mid           The tongue is lower in the mouth

6.      Low          The tongue is low in the mouth.

All vowels can be described in terms of their location on both vertical and horizontal axes.

1.      If you pronounce the High and Mid Back Vowels, you will find that you round your lips. These are called rounded vowels.

2.      When the mouth is relatively more open, the vowel is called lax.

3.      When the mouth is relatively more closed, the vowel is tense.

 

Allitration


Alliteration is a poetic technique in which the beginning sound is repeated in words for effect. Tongue twisters often use alliteration to create catchy phrases.

In this figure of speech, two or more words begin with the same letter or syllable.

Notice the effect of alliteration as you try to say the following tongue twisters:

Examples

1.      Potatoes, peas, and pumpkin are greengrocer's goods.

Here three words, in the beginning, begin with the letter 'P' and three words, in the end, begin with the letter 'g'.

2.      This miss is Sister Kissler.

Here 'is' pronunciation is repeated in 'this' 'is' and 'sister' and 'iss' is repeated in 'miss' and Kissler'.

Alliteration is the repetition of a speech sound in a sequence of nearby words.

The term is usually applied only to the consonants, only when the recurrent sound begins a word or a stressed syllable within a word.

In Old English Alliterative Meter(Having the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable), alliteration was the principal organizing device of the verse line, the verse is rhymed(Rhymed Lines - Correspondence in the sounds of two or more lines (especially final sounds)); having each line divided into two half-lines of two strong stresses by a decisive pause or caesura; and at least one, and usually both, of the two stressed syllables in the first half-line alliterate with the first stressed syllable of the second half-line.

In later English versification, however, alliteration is used only for special stylistic effects, such as to reinforce the meaning, to link related words, or to provide tone color and enhance the palpability of enunciating the words.

An example is the repetitions of the s, th, and w consonants in Shakespeare's

Sonnet 30:

When to thsessions of sweet silent thought

I summon up remembrance of things past,

I sigh the lack of many a thing I sought

And with old woes new wail my dear time's waste...

Alliteration Practice Example:

1.      Snakes slither on the sidewalk.

2.      The wind whistled through the willows.

3.      Magic markers can make masterpieces.

4.      Tommy tried to twist but tumbled.

5.      Greg grabbed the garnish from the graceful bowl.

6.      Six silly sailors swam south.

7.      Bobby bought a bunch of brown bananas.







 


Simile

A simile is a rhetorical figure expressing comparison or likeness that directly compares two things through some connective word such as like, as, so, than, or a verb such as resembles.

Although similes and metaphors are generally seen as interchangeable, similes acknowledge the imperfections and limitations of the comparative relationship largely than metaphors.

Examples:  Using 'as' - The use of 'as' makes the simile more explicit.

1.       She walks as gracefully as a cat.

2.       He was as hungry as a lion.

3.       He was as mean as a bull.

4.       That spider was as fat as an elephant.

5.       Cute as a kitten.

6.       As busy as a bee.

7.       As snug as a bug in a rug.

8.       Eyes as big as dinner plates.

 

Using ‘like’ - A simile can explicitly provide the basis of a comparison or leave this basis implicit. In the implicit case, the simile leaves the audience to determine for themselves which features of the target are being predicated.

It may be a type of sentence that uses 'as' or 'like' to connect the words being compared.

1.       She is like candy so sweet.

2.       He is like a refiner's fire.

3.       Her eyes twinkled like stars.

4.       He fights like a lion.

5.       He runs like a cheetah.

6.       She is fragrant like a rose.

7.       Gareth is like a lion when he gets angry.

8.       “For hope grew around me, like the twining vine,” (Coleridge - Dejection)

9.       "And the executioner went off like an arrow." -Alice in Wonderland

 

Sometimes similes are submerged, used without using comparative words ('like' or 'as').

Examples:   Without 'like' or 'as'

1.       "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? / Thou art more lovely and more temperate:" William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18

2.       "How this Herculean Roman does become / the carriage of his chafe." William Shakespeare, Antony, and Cleopatra' Act I, sc. 3.

 

How does Edmund Spenser feel pangs of love?

Ice and Fire – Sonnet 30

Edmund Spenser

My Love is like to ice, and I to fire:
How comes it then that this her cold so great
Is not dissolved through my so hot desire,
But harder grows the more I her entreat?
Or how comes it that my exceeding heat
Is not allayed by her heart-frozen cold,
But that I burn much more in boiling sweat,
And feel my flames augmented manifold?
What more miraculous thing may be told,
That fire, which all things melts, should harden ice,
And ice, which is congeal’d with senseless cold,
Should kindle fire by wonderful device?
Such is the power of love in gentle mind,
That it can alter all the course of kind.

Genre - Sonnet

Rhyme Scheme -  ab ab/bc bc/cd cd/ee

The Sonnet “ICE AND FIRE” (Number Thirtieth) is taken out from the collection named Amoretti (a collection of 89 sonnets by Edmund Spenser addressed to Elizabeth Boyle). The poem follows the tradition of the Elizabethan Age. Poet has used full of far-fetched turns of thoughts aimed at showing the sad plight of a devoted lover. The lover finds his beloved coldhearted. He calls her heart frozen. The lover describes himself as he is burning and feeling his flames augmented.

|| Analysis ||

The theme of this sonnet is the power of love, which can cause alteration of feelings, emotion, and the natural course of life. This sonnet, therefore, has a very popular subject matter- the lover trying hard to immortalize the relationship. The poem is a sonnet grouped into three quatrains and a couplet. “Spencer splits his poem into four different sections, each section being a question”. The woman in this sonnet is compared to ice whose feelings of coldness keeps her disinterested towards the burning love of the speaker. She is a heartless, insensitive woman who is not ready to meltdown on the speaker's efforts and love. The speaker is thus shocked to notice such a type of behaviour and wonders that his exceeding passions of love are responsible for the increasing indifference in the woman. The speaker surprisingly is hopeful that one day his burning passions of love will melt her down and she will understand his love and true feelings.  Love sometimes seems unattainable but you do not truly know it is out of reach unless you try, Edmund Spenser portrays this message in his poem “My Love is Like to Ice.” This poem was taken out from his literary work the “Amoretti,” which was written as a part of the courtship of his second wife Elizabeth Boyle. This poem can be seen as his struggle for love, knowing the intent of the poet’s reason for writing such beautiful poetry gives us the advantage when analyzing. Spenser uses two interesting elements to convey his feelings and emotions in reference to love to show us why love is mutual and should not be given up just. Symbolism is seen throughout the poem very often with respect to human emotions and feelings. The nature of these two elements shows the reader that there is no such thing as impossible love. Spenser splits his poem into four different sections, each section being a question, which illustrates human emotions and feelings through different states of love. The first section carries its own tone and mood, set by the first line, “My love is like to ice, and I to fire,” Spenser chooses two elements that are incompatible and completely opposite from each other. The speaker in Spenser's sonnet 'My Love Is Like to Ice' is the mask the poet adopts, using an ancient rhetorical device. The poet and the speaker (or persona, which literally means 'mask') are not necessarily the same. You can consider it the perceiving consciousness if you prefer; the main thing is to avoid the confusion and misunderstanding that accompanies the error.

The rhyme scheme of the first quatrain is ABAB/fire, great, desire, entreat; the second is BCBC / heat, cold, sweat, manifold; the third rhymes CDCD / told, ice, cold, device; and the couplet rhymes EE/mind, kind. The rhyme includes near rhyme in great - entreat and heat - sweat. Keep in mind that in Spenser's day, poetry was considered a rhetorical game more often than not.

The first line is a simile that compares his beloved - one to ice and the speaker to a fire that for some reason does not thaw his frozen love. The more he pursues her, the faster she flees (the colder she gets!). There is a 'law of contraries' being created here that defies natural law - those laws like gravity that operate on one and all in normal circumstances. Nevertheless, these are not normal times, the speaker alleges. This is a time for miracles in the realm of romance. We are in a foreign place where the usual laws do not apply.  The couplet resolves the dilemma by sleight of language - the power of love can overrule natural love and change our very nature. Our 'kind' (humankind) can be changed to its very core. 

Emily Bronte's (1818-1848) life in a quick view.

 Emily’s father, Patrick Bronte, was an Irishman. He was priest of the Church of England. Her 
mother Maria Branwell was Cornish. Her mother died in September 1821. On 19 December 1848, Emily Died at Age of 30. Her Sister Charlotte found a manuscript copy of some verses written by Emily. Then another sister Anne shyly produced some poems. After that, they composed a collection and published it under the title of “Poems” though they published it under pseudonyms – Currer Bell, Ellis Bell and Acton Bell. Her literary output was very merge. She composed some poetry, she wrote just one novel. Wuthering Heights (1847)

S. T. Coleridge

Biography

He was born on October 21, 1772 in Ottery St. Mary, Devonshire. His father, John Coleridge was Schoolmaster cum Parson. At the age of eight-he left, his home after a quarrel with his brother and spent the night on the Bank of a stream. Since early childhood, he was highly imaginative and interested in reading. He had read The Bible before he was five.

After his father Death in 1781, he was sent to Christ’s Hospital, where he remained until 1782. He found escape in books. He read Homer, Virgil, Shakespeare and many more. He also studied medicine and metaphysics. His first love was Mary Evans who was a sister of one of his friends.

In 1791, he joined Jesus College, Cambridge as charity student.  For a time he found himself in debt. To flee from his troubles, he went to London in 1793. Coleridge left Cambridge in 1794 without completing his degree. Later Coleridge married Sarah Fricker, the sister of Robert Southey’s Fiancee.

Chronology

  •  1772 – S.T. Coleridge born October 21
  •  1781  - His father died
  •  1782 – he was sent to Christ’s Hospital London
  •  1791 – He left Christ’s Hospital and joined Jesus College Cambridge.
  •  1795 – Married to Sarah Fricker
  •  1797 – Begun writing The Ancient Mariner from Nov.13 
  •  1800 – The second edition of Lyrical Ballads published with Preface by Wordsworth.
  •  1804 – He decided to leave his wife.
  •  1816 – Christabel and Kubla Khan published.
  •  1817- Biographia Literaria published.
  •  1825 – Aids to Reflection in the Formation of a Manly Character published.
  •  1830 – On the Constitution of Church and State published. 
  •  1834 - he died on 25th  July at Highgate, London.

Ozymandies - Critical Point of View

                                     I met a traveller from an antique land,

Who said—“Two vast and trunkless legs of stone

Stand in the desert. . . . Near them, on the sand,

Half sunk a shattered visage lies, whose frown,

And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,

Tell that its sculptor well those passions read

Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,

The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed;

And on the pedestal, these words appear:

My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings;

Look on my Works, ye Mighty, and despair!

Nothing beside remains. Round the decay

Of that colossal Wreck, boundless and bare

The lone and level sands stretch far away.”

Source: Shelley’s Poetry and Prose (1977)

Ozymandias exemplifies the conceit of human greatness and the failure of all efforts to immortalize his grandeur. Ozymandias was a great Egyptian king, a life like statue of whom was made to immortalize his memories. Now the Statue seen half-buried and broken, and all around it there is seen a stretch of barren desert.

The poet relates an experience of a traveler from Egypt. The traveler saw a statue in the desert with two huge and trunk less legs, near them lay, half buried, the broken face of the statue. On this face of the statue can still be seen the expression of haughtiness and a sense of authority which had artfully been depicted by the sculptor. On the pedestal, the following words were inscribed: “My name is Ozymandias and I am a great king. Look at great deeds which I have accomplished and which nobody can equal.”

This is a sonnet. It does not strictly follow the accepted conventions of the form of the sonnet. The rhyme scheme does not follow any of the recognized pattern and even some of the rhymes are faulty.

It is one of the best written by Shelley. It has earned high praise from critics and they   considered it powerful, imaginative and instructive composition. Its moral goes home to our hearts powerfully. Human glory and pomp are mortal. Hammers of decay quickly follow the hammers of construction. Times goes havoc with buildings and monuments. However, the moral is not stated. The poet only presents a picture to human mind and we have ourselves to draw the moral. It is a didactic poem, but its moral is not thrust upon us directly Shelley said that didacticism was his abhorrence and he did not preach moral lessons.

The mood of the poem is melancholic because it makes us think over the vanity of human desires and their failures to keep their memories alive. The contrast between the past glory of the king and the present condition of the statue is very striking to the mind and emphasis the moral of the poem. The final lines of the poem are remarkable for the suggestiveness. The poem contains two striking scenes. One is the picture of the broken statue, a huge wreck, the face of which still wears a frown and the sneer of cold command, another is the scene of the lone, and level desert, boundless and bare, stretching far away.


Supernatural Machinery Used By : Alexander Pope in his (Rape of Lock) Mock Epic

In the dedication poet explains that machinery is a term invented by the critics’ to signify the part, which deities, angels, or demons play in a poem. He goes on to say that the machinery in his poem is based on the Rosicrucian doctrine of spirits. According to this doctrine, the four elements are inhabited by sylphs, nymphs, gnomes, and salamanders. The sylphs, whose habitation is in the air, are supposed to be the best-conditioned creatures imaginable.

Poet tells us in the poem that beautiful women return, after their death, to the elements from which they were derived .Termagants, or violent tempered women become salamanders or spirits of the fire. Women of gentle and pleasing disposition pass into nymphs or water spirits. Prudish women become sylphs or spirits of the air. Poet attributes to the mischievous influence of the gnomes many unguarded follies of the female sex, which he holds up to ridicule.

The first and perhaps the foremost occupation of the sylphs is the protection of fair and chaste women who reject the male sex. They guard and save the chastity of maiden who are on the point of yielding to their lovers. They save these maidens from falling victims to the allurements of “treacherous friend”, dashing young men whose music softens their minds, and dancing inflames their passions. The gnomes or earth spirits fill the minds of proud maidens with foolish ideas, which make them indulge in vain dreams of being married to lords and peers. These gnomes teach young coquettes to ogle and pretend blushing at the sight of fashionable young men who cause their hearts flutter. It is the sylphs, however, who safely guide the maiden through all dangers. It is most amusing to note how these sylphs do this. Whenever a maiden is about to yield to the seduction of a particular young man , another who is more attractive and tempting appears on the scene and the fashionable maidens at once transfers her favor to the new- comer. This may be called levity or fecklessness in women but it is all contrived by the sylphs. Some of the sylphs are in charge of national affairs and their chief guards of the British Throne.

In most of famous epics, machinery consists in supernatural beings like gods and angels who play a vital role in the action of the poems thus showing that the human world is dependent or even adequate and that supernatural powers have an important bearing on this world. Pope thought that his Mock epic would be incomplete without a parody of this established practice of epic poets in introducing machinery. The machinery of is poem comprises the sylphs led by Ariel. In lines of great poetic beauty, Pope describes wittily the Occupations and tasks of the sylphs in general.

Ariel tells in the poem that to him and his followers has been assigned the humble but pleasant duty of fashionable young women. The functions of these sylphs are described humorously and including saving the powder from being blown off from the cheeks of ladies, preventing scents from evaporating , preparing cosmetics, teaching the ladies to blush and to put on enchanting  airs, suggesting new ideas about dress.

The sylphs show a delightful down scaling of the epic machines. They are light by any heroic standards. They feel scared when a crisis approaches. Yet they are in every detail Belinda’s intimate and councilors, they explain the various complicated conventions and anxieties that make up Belinda’s day.

The Mock epic may be described as satirical comedy of manners. The sylphs in this poem are both a mirror and mock presentation of customs and conventions of the community of the time. Belinda is told in a dream that sylphs guide and protect through the dangers of life. Ariel’s account of the predicament of the tender mind in a circle of rakes reduces his use of noble words such as innocent, honor, purity to the level of muddle and a sham he is there , he tells her , to protect her purity according to sylphlike theology. Defended by sylphs, the melting maids are safe, for what we call honor is really no more than Providence. Reassuring Belinda in this way , Ariel is in effect undermining her moral position, taking away with one hand the credit he gives with the other .he explains how a woman‘s defense is archived . a maid would fall to Florio if  Damon were not at hand to divert her attention , and if , an old folly were not expelled by a new . A maid shifts the moving toy-shop of her heart with her varying vanities it is the sylphs that make her do that.

What we called levity in women, says Ariel, is the effect of the same divine guidance as determined their honor. The Concealed implication, that the two qualities are roughly on a par, is very cruel. Nevertheless, Ariel merrily goes on to warn Belinda in Epic style of the danger that threatens her. He concludes with a plea for caution, and the orders of caution come from the lips that have just encouraged flirtatiousness.

The machines are present at every crucial situation in the play.  The sylphs are present in the course of Belinda’s journey by boat to Hampton court. They have been warned by Ariel to remain alert and vigilant, fifty of them having been deputed to take charge of Belinda’s petticoat. They attend on Belinda when she plays ombre. They hover around her when she sips coffee. In addition, they withdraw only when Ariel sees an earthly lover lurking at her heart. A gnome, called Umbriel, goes to the Cave of Spleen and returns with a bag full of sighs, sobs, screams and outburst of anger, and a phial filled with fainting fits, gentles sorrows, soft grieves. All of which are released over Belinda and the Sylphs are present to witness the flight Belinda’s lock of hair to the sky. In short, the machinery of the poem is constantly kept in the reader’s view, to the very last.

Thus, poet has provided the myth of the sylphs in order to symbolize the polite conventions, which govern the conduct of maidens. We miss the whole point if we regard the sylphs as merely supernatural machinery. In general, we may say that Pope’s us of this myth represents his attempt to do justice to the intricacies of the feminine mind. His treatment of the sylphs allows him to develop his whole attitude towards Belinda and the special world she graces.

 

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