Conjunctions

Sentence Linkers/Linking Devices

A conjunction is a word that joins words or sentences together.

1.      He is honest and she is intelligent.  (Two sentences are connected here.)

2.      Three and three make six. (Two words are connected here.)

 

Conjunctions are words that join clauses together to make sentences, and tell how the meanings of the clauses relate to each other.

 

Kinds of conjunctions

  • A.    Coordinate Conjunctions
  • B.     Subordinate Conjunctions
  • C.     Correlative Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions 

They relate two Different words or two different sentences of Equal rank or status. (In Clauses, they connect only principal/independent clauses)
Such as: -         For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS)

Subordinating Conjunctions  

They connect subordinating clauses with other clauses.

Such as: - After, although, as, as if, as long as, as though, because, before, even if, even though, if, if only, in order that, now that, once, rather than, since, so that, than, that, though, till, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, while

Examples: -

1.      We are going out to meet him after we finish our work.

2.      While I was waiting in line for my turn, I was having my lunch.

3.      I love her because she is so cute.

Correlative conjunctions 

They are always to be used in Pairs.

Such as = Either … or, Neither…Nor, Both…. And, whether… or, not only… but also.

Conjunctive Adverbs

Conjunctive adverbs make up an even stronger category of conjunctions. They show logical relationships between two independent sentences, between sections of paragraphs, or between entire paragraphs.

Conjunctive adverbs are so emphatic that they should be used sparingly: however, when used appropriately, they can be quite effective.

Such as Also, Hence, However, Still, Likewise, Otherwise, Therefore. Conversely, Rather, Consequently, Furthermore, Nevertheless, Instead, Moreover, Then, Thus, Meanwhile, Accordingly

Examples: - If the fish is grilled, I will have that: otherwise, I might have the chicken.

Expletive

They are closely related to conjunctive adverbs. Expletives convey no meaning of their own but instead serve only to emphasize the statement to which they are attached.  As such, then, they technically do not show a logical relationship like time or cause between ideas, and that fact prevents them from being treated as conjunctive adverbs.

Such as : -Of course, indeed, naturally, after all, in short, I Hope, at least, remarkably, in fact, on the whole, Overall, I Suppose, It seems, In brief, I think, clearly assuredly, definitely to be sure without doubt, for all that, in any event, importantly, certainly.

Use of Coordinating Conjunctions

And

·         To suggest that one work is sequential to another

Kamla sent mail in her application and waited by the call for a response.

 

·         To suggest that one work is the result of another

Rajesh heard the weather forecast and immediately went home.

 

·         To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another

Harsh is Smart and Stalin has a nice smile.


·         To reflect an element of surprise

Mumbai is a rich city and suffers from many elements of urban stain.

 

·  To reflect that one clause is conditionally dependent upon another (usually the first clause is an imperative)

Use your Credit card without care and you will soon find yourself deep in debt.

 

·         To suggest a kind of comment on the first clause.

Raveena became addicted to Gambling and that surprised no one who knew her.

But

·         To reflect a contrast that is unexpected in light of first clause

John lost a fortune in the stock market, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably.

 

·         To reflect in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied in a negative way

The club never invested foolishly, but used the services of some smart advisers.

 

·         To connect two Ideas with the meaning of with the exception of

Everybody but Jai Krishna was trying out for the team.

Or

·         To suggest that only one possibility can be realized, excluding one or the other

You study hard for this exam or you will not get good marks.


·         To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives

We can cook dinner tonight, or we can just eat leftovers.

·        
To suggest a refinement of the first clause

JDB College is the Premier Girls College in the district, or so it seems to JDB alumnae.

·         
To suggest a restatement or correction of the first part of the sentence.

There are no tigers in this sanctuary, or so our guide tells us.

 

·         To suggest a negative condition.

 “ Do or Die”

·         To suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative

They must approve his political style or they would not keep electing him President.

Nor

The conjunction NOR is not used often as other, so it might fell a bit odd. It can be used with other negative expressions.

He is neither sane nor smart.

Yet

The word YET functions sometimes as an adverb. It can be used reflecting several meanings as - In addition, even, still, eventually, and as soon as now.

Jack plays basketball well, yet his favorite game is cricket.

Yet also functions as a Coordinating conjunction meaning like nevertheless, or but.

For

The word for is most often used as preposition, It is also used, as Coordinating Conjunction. Beginning a sentence with the conjunction for should be avoided. Its function is to introduce the reason for the preceding clause.

Most of the visitors were happy just relaxing under the shade, for it had been a long, dusty journey on the cart..

So

So, sometimes connects two independent clauses along with a comma, but sometimes it does not.

She has always been nervous in large gatherings, so it is no surprise that she avoids crowd.

Subordinating Conjunctions

·         Time: - when, whenever, till, until, before, after, as soon as, as, since, while.

 When I went to office, the peon was going to his home.

 

·         Cause or reason – as, because, since,

He is allowed to enter as he is invited by us.

·         Purpose – that, so that, in order that, lest

We eat that we may live.

·         Result or Consequence – so that, such that, that

The coffee is so hot that I cannot drink it.

·         Condition – If , Unless, provided, that, supposing

He will help you if you ask him.

·         Place – where, wherever, whither, whence

Let her go wherever she likes to go

·         Comparison – as…as, So…as, unluckiness

He is as strong as your brother is.

·         Concession  - though, although, yet, notwithstanding, however

She is poor yet she is trustworthy.

·         Manner –as, as though, so far as

He spoke as if he was drunk.

Copulative Conjunction

And, and… also, as well as, Both…and well, now

He came and wrote an application.

Alternative conjunction

Else, otherwise, either …or, neither…nor

He should join or he will be terminated.

Adversative conjunction

However, but, still, yet, only, nevertheless, while

He was not sincere however, he got promotion.

Illative (Inferential) Conjunctions

For, so, therefore

You are in power, so you are respected.

Some more important conjunction

  • Not only … but also…
  • Neither nor
  • Either  or
  • Both and
  • So That
  •  No sooner Than
  •  Hardly had… when
  • So soon as

Conjunctions: Who, whom, whose, which, when, where

·         Who 

I saw a woman, who wore a red sari.

·         Whom

He is the manager whom I met yesterday.

·         Whose

I know Suresh whose son passed PMT.

·         Which

I gave you a pen, which you have lost.

·         When

I was Talking bath when he came to office my.

·         Where

This is the house where I lived for three years.

 

 

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