Word(s) Formation - How to change word forms?

Word – a group of some meaningful alphabets is called a word. It must contain any one of the vowel letters or even a consonant with the vowel sound. “I” and “A” are exceptions because they complete and meaningful in single letter.

Words, which are, divided in different word classes according to their nature and uses like nouns, verbs, adverbs and so on and they can be interchanged in different words classes as required.

A word comes from a basic form, which is known as a root word.

We can word classes by many ways such as –

·         Joining two or more words

Ex: -       Blackboard (Noun)

Black + board

Black is an adjective while board is a noun.  

·         By changing the body of the root words

Ex: -       Advice - (Noun)

                Advise – (Verb) – There we can see the change in consonant.


·         With the help of various prefixes or suffixes

Ex: -       Usefulness (Noun)                                          Use (Verb) + ful + ness (suffix)

Misunderstood (adjective)                          Mis (Prefix) + understood (verb)             


These types of words can be grouped under three categories.


1.       Compound words: -                        formed by joining two or more words.

2.       Primary Derivatives: -                     formed by making some changes in the body of the root word.

3.       Secondary Derivatives: -                               formed by an addition to the beginning or at the end of the word.


Compound words

Compound Nouns

1.       Noun + Noun


2.       Adjective + Noun



3.       Verb + Noun


4.       Gerund + Noun

Writing table


5.       Adverb/Preposition + Noun


6.       Verb + Adverb


7.       Adverb + Noun


Compound Adjective

1.       Noun + Adjective/ Participle



2.       Adjective + Adjective



3.       Adverb + Participles


Compound Verbs

1.       Noun + Verb


2.       Adjective + Verb


3.       Adverb+ Verb


Forming Noun from verb by adding: -ER, OR, ION, ING, MENT, AL

1.       Play + er = player

2.       work + er = worker

3.       sing + er = singer

4.       sell + er = seller

5.       collect + or=collector

6.        inspect + or = inspector

7.       act + or = actor

8.        sail + or = sailor

9.       connect + ion = connection

10.   attract + ion = attraction

11.   protect + ion = protection

12.   build + ing = building

13.   repair + ing=repairing

14.   move + ment = movement

15.   approve + al = approval

Forming noun from adjectives by adding: -NESS, DOM, TH, RY

1.       Weak + ness = weakness

2.       Fresh + ness = freshness

3.       Kind + ness = kindness

4.       Free + dom = freedom

5.       Wise + dom = wisdom

6.       True + th = truth

7.       Brave + ry = bravery

8.       Slave +ry = slavery

Forming adjective from nouns by adding: - FUL, LY, LESS, EN, OUS, ABLE, ISH

1.       Fear + ful = fearful

2.       Harm+ ful = harmful

3.       Mercy + ful = merciful

4.       Hope + ful = hopeful

5.       Week + ly = weekly

6.       Body + ly = bodily

7.       Year + ly = yearly

8.       Care + less = careless

9.       Use + less = useless

10.   Mercy +less = merciless

11.   Wool + en = woolen

12.   Silk + en = silken

13.   Gold + en = golden

14.   Danger + ous = dangerous

15.   Courage + ous = courageous

16.   Comfort + able = comfortable

17.   Value + able = valuable

18.   Fool +ish = foolish


Forming adverbs fro adjectives by adding: - LY, ILY

1.       Brave + ly = bravely

2.       Slow + ly = slowly


3.       Happy + ily = happily

 Forming adverbs from nouns by adding: - FULLY, ILY

1.       purpose + fully = purposefully

2.       Anger + ily = angrily

Forming nouns from noun by adding: - DOM, ER, HOOD, IAN, RY SHIP

1.       Village - village + r = villager 

2.       Farm – farm + er = farmer 

3.       Office -office + r = officer

4.       Boy – boy + hood = boyhood

5.       Music– music + ian = musician

6.       Library library + ian = librarian

7.       Slave – slave + ry = slavery

8.       Poet poet + ry = poetry

9.       Friend friend + ship = friendship

10.   Scholar scholar+ship=scholarship

English prefixes

A (On, In, Out)

Be (By)

For (Thoroughly)

Fore (Before)

Gain (Against)

In (In)

Mis (Wrong)

Over (Above)

To (This)

Un (Not / To Reverse An Action)

Under (Beneath, Below)

With (Against/With)


Latin Prefixes

Ab,A,Abs (From Away)

Ad,Ac,Af,Ag,Al,An,An,Ap,Ar,As,At,A(To Adjoin)

Ambi, Amb,Am(On Both Sides/Around)

Ante,Anti,An (Before)







Ex,Ef,E (Out Of)

Extra (Beyond/Outside)

In,Il,Im,Ir,N,Em(In/ Into)

Inter,Intro,Enter (Among/Within)


Non (Not)

Ob,Oc,Of(In The Way Of/Against)


Per,Pel (Through)




Re (Back,Again)





Sub, Suc, Suf, Sug, Sum, Sup, Sur, Sus (Under)

Subter (Beneth)

Super (Above)


Vice (In The Place Of)


Greek Prefixes

A, an (without, not)


Ana ( Up,back)

Anti,ant (against)

Apo,ap( from)

Arch,archi (chief)

Auto (self)

Cata (down)

Di (twice)

Dia 9Trough)


En,em (In)



Ex,ec (Out of)

Hemi (half)

HoMo,hom (like)

Hyper (over)

Hypo (Over, beyond)

Meta,Met (implying changes)

Mono (alone)

Pan (all)

Para (beside)

Peri round)

Philo,Phll (love)

Pro (before)

Syn,sym,syl,sy(with, together)


English suffixes

Of Noun

Denoting agents

Er,ar,or,yer ster,ter,ther


Denoting state, action,condition,being


Forming Diminutives


Of adjective

Ed (having)

En (made of)

Ful(full of)

Ish (somewhat like)

Less (free from/without)


Some(with the quality of)

Ward (Inclining to)


Of verbs

En (casutive)

Se(to make)

Er (intensive/Frequentative)

Af Adverbs

Ly (like)


Ward, wards (turning to)

Way, ways (straight)

Wise (manner)

Latin suffixes

 Denoting agents or thing



Denoting state, action, result of an action

Age (bondage)

Ance,ence (abundance)

Cy (fancy)

Ion (action)

Ice,ise (servive)





Forming diminutives


Denoting place



of adjective



Of verbs


Greek suffixes



A few Latin roots

Equus (equal)

Ager (a field)

Ago,actus (I do)

Alius (another)

Amo (I love)

Angulus (A Cornor)

Anima (Life)

Annus (A Year)

Aperio (I Open)

Aqua (Water)

Appello (I Call)

Audio (I Hear)

Bellum (War)

Bene  (Well)

Brevis (Short)

Caedo (I Cut)

Candeo (I Shine)

Capio (I Take)

Caput (The Head)

Caro (Flesh)

Cedo (I Go/Yield)

Centrum (Centre)

Centum (A Hundred)

Cerno (I Distinguish)

Civis (Citizen)

Clamo (I Shout)

Claudo (I Shut)

Colo (I Till)

Cor  (The Heart)

Corpus (The Body)

Credo (I Believe)

Cresco (I Grow)

Crux (A Cross-)

Culpa (A Fault)

Cura (Care)

Dues (God)

Dico (I Say)

Dies (A Day)

Do (I Give)

Doceo (I Teach)

Dominus (A Lord)

Duco (I Lead)

Duo (Two)

Durus (Hard Lasting)

Eo (I Go)

Esse (To Be)

Facio (I Make)

Fero (I Carry)

Fido (I Trust)

Finis (An End)

Flecto (I Bend)

Forma (A Form)

Fortis (Strong)

Frango (I Break)

Frater (A Brother)

Frons (Forehead)

Fugio (I Flee)

Fundo (I Pour)

Fundus  (Thebottom)

Gens (A Race)

Gradior ( I Go)

Gratia (Favour)

Gravis (Heavy)

Habeo (I Have)

Homo (A Man)

Impero (I Command)

Jacio (I Throw)

Judex (A Judge)

Jungo (I Join)

Labor (I Glide)

Laus (Praise)

Lego (I Gather)

Lego (I Send)

Levis (Light)

Lex ( A Law)

Liber (Free)

Ligo (I Blind)

Litera (A Letter)

Locus (A Place)

Loquor (I Speak)

Ludo (I Play)

Lumen (A Light)

Luo ( I Wash)

Lux (Light)

Magnus (Hand)

Malus (Bad)

Manus (Hand)

Mare (The Sea)

Mater (A Mother)

Medius (The Middle)

Memor (Mindful)

Miles (A Solider)

Mitto (I Send)

Moneo (I Advise)

Mons (A Mountain)

Moveo (I Move)

Multus (Many)

Munus (A Gift)

Navis (A Ship)

Noceo (I Hurt)

Novus (New)

Nox (Night)

Omnis (All)

Pando (I Spread Out)

Pars (A Part)

Pater (A Father)

Patior (I Suffer)

Pello (I Drive)

Pendeo (I Hang)

Pes (A Foot)

Peto (I Seek)

Pleo (I fill)

Pono (I Place)

Porto (I Carry)

Primus (First)

Probo (I Try)

Rapio (I Seize)

Rego (I Rule)

Rumpo (I Break)

Sanctus (Holy)

Scio (I Know)

Scribo (I Write)

Seco (I Cut)

Sentio (I Feel)

Sequor (I Follow)

Servio (I Serve)

Signum (A Sign)

Similis (Like)

Solvo (I Loose)

Speccio (I See)

Spiro (Breath)

Stringo (I Bind)

Struo (I Build)

Sumo (I Take)

Tango (I Touch)

Tempus (Time)

Tendo (I Stretch)

Terminus (An End)

Terra (The Earth)

Texo (I Weave)

Torqueo (I Twist)

Traho (I Draw)

Tribuo (I Give)

Unus (One)

Valeo (I Am Well)

Venio (I Come)

Verbum (A Word)

Verto ( I Turn)

Versus ( I Turn)

Video ( Isee)

Vinco ( I Conquer0

Vivo ( I Live)

Voco ( I Call0

Volo (I Wish)

Volvo (I Roll)

Varo (I Eat)

Voveo (I Vow)

Vulgus (The Common People)


A few Greek roots

Ago (I Lead)

Agon (A Contest)

Anthropos (A Man)

Aster (A Star)

Autos (Self)

Biblos (A Book)

Bio (Life)

Chole (Bile)

Chronos (Time)

Deka (Ten)

Demos (The People)

Doxa (Opinion)

Gamos (Marriage)

Geo (The Earth)

Gonia (An Angle)

Grapho (I Write)

Hellos (The Sun)

Hippos (A Horse)

Hodos (A Way)

Hudor (Water)

Idios (One’s Own)

Isos (Equal)

Kosmos (The World)

Kratos (Strength)

Kuklos (A Circle)

Lithos (A Stone)

Logos (A Word)

Luo (I Loosen)

Meter (A Mother)

Metron (A Measure)

Mikros (Little)

Monos (Alone)

Nomos (A Law)

Ode (A Song)

Onoma (A Name)

Orthos (Right)

Pan (All)

Pathos (Feeling)

Petra (A Rock)

Phileo (I Love)

Phone (A Sound)

Phos (Light)

Phrasis (A Speech)

Poleo (I Make)

Polis (A City)

Polus (Many)

Pous (A Foot)

Rheo (I Flow)

Skopeo (I see)

Sophia (Wisdom)

Techne (An Art)

Tele (Far)

Temno (I Cut)

Theos (A God)

Thermos (Warm)

Thesis (A Placing)

Treis (Three)

Tupos (Impression)

Zoon (an Animal)




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