Showing posts with label English Grammar. Show all posts
Showing posts with label English Grammar. Show all posts

Using Present Continuous Tense was never so easy before.



How and where do use the Present Continuous tense?

Format(s)

Assertive

Subject + is/am/are + Main Verb 1st + Ing

Negative

Subject + is/am/are + Not + Main Verb 1st + Ing

Interrogative

Is/am/are + Subject +Main Verb 1st +Ing?

 

Agreement

Singular Subject + Singular Verb

Plural Subject + Plural Verb

 

To tell about an action or process that is going on at the time of speaking.

  1. They are cutting trees. (Cut + ing) (T) is doubled here.

 

To tell about the actions, which are going to be, happen in near future.

  1. He is practicing. (Practice + Ing ) ‘E’ is removed here. 
  2. Am I doing wrong?

 

With ‘always’, ‘continually’, ’constantly’, and ‘forever’, when a doer is doing something against others' will.

  1. She is always complaining.

 

Where do not use continuous tense?

Stative Verb/ Non-conclusive verbs

 

Verbs of appearance              Look, Resemble, Seem, Appear

Verbs of emotions                  Want, Desire, Wish, Hate, Hope, Like, Refuse, Believe, Doubt, Loathe, Mind, Care, Detest, Adore, Appreciate, Admire, Fear, and Expect

Verbs of thinking                   Think, Suppose, Agree, Consider, Trust, Remember, Forget, Know, Understand, Perceive, Realize, and Recollect

Verbs of possessions               Belong, Owe, Own, Possess, Contain, and Have 

Verbs of perception                See, Hear, Smell, Taste, and Feel

 

Example: - 

  1. We are seeing with our eyes. (Wrong)
  2. We see with our eyes. (Right)
  3. The Session judge is hearing our case. (Right)

Uses of Present Indefinite Tense

 Uses of Present Indefinite Tense

Format(s)

Assertive

Subject + Main Verb 1st /Main Verb 1st + s/es.

Negative

Subject + Do/Does+ Not + Main Verb 1st.

Interrogative

Do/Does + Subject +Main Verb 1st?

Agreement

  1. Singular Subject + Singular Verb.
  2. Plural Subject + Plural Verb.

 

1.   To tell a Universal/eternal truth

A.    Birds fly.

B.      Bird flies.

 

2.   To tell about daily actions

A.    He practices every day.

B.      Do they practice every day?

 

3.   In live commentaries on TV and radios

A.    Ram passes the ball to Rahim.

B.      Ram does not pass the ball to Rahim.

 

4.   If sentence starts with here or there

A.    Here comes the train.

 

5.   In newspapers headlines

A.    Cricket match draws.

 

6.   For planned future actions

A.    He arrives tomorrow.

B.     Batches start tomorrow.

 

7.   With whenever and when

A.    Whenever you ring the bell, she comes.

 

8.   If subordinate clause starts with – if, till, as soon as, when, unless, before, until, even if, in case, as then always use the present simple

A.    We shall wait until she arrives.

 

9.   Quotations come in present simple. 

A.    The sun rises in the east.

Pronouns – The words we can use in place of nouns to refer them.

P  Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns refer to people or things. These pronouns can be divided into more categories.

1.      Singular or plural (according to numbers)

2.      First, second, or third person (According to persons)

3.      Subjective or objective case and possessive (according to cases) 

 



  1. The first person indicates the person speaking or writing.
  2. The second person indicates the person being spoken or written to.
  3. The third person indicates the person, people, thing, or things being spoken or written about.

Examples:

 I am not going to the party.                                        [First person, singular, subjective]
 The fight ends with me.                                              [First person, singular, objective]
We could not discover the root of the issue.              [First person, plural, subjective]

*Pronoun, “You” is considered both singular and plural and used in both the subjective and objective case.

Possessive Pronouns

The third case is possessive. Possessive pronouns function as an adjective that shows ownership or relationship – She is my favorite person.

They can be identified as first, second, or third person and singular or plural as well.

Examples:

1.     We are leaving our lives in the hands of the rescue team. [First person, plural]
The others’ opinions are irrelevant; the only one that matters is yours. [Second person, singular]
Their conclusions overstepped the bounds of their research. [Third person, plural]
I cannot find its case. [Third person, singular]

Reflexive Pronouns

As shown by their names, these pronouns reflect the reader’s attention back to the subject of the sentence – Ram completed his homework by himself.

Reflexive pronouns are used in two main situations:

  •       When the subject and direct object is the same thing.
  •       When the subject and object of a preposition are the same.

Singular Plural First Person myself ourselves Second Person yourself yourselves Third Person himself, themselves herself, itself

Note: The forms His self, their selves, and themself are not words in the English language. Examples:

a.       Type 1: Jamil shot himself in the foot.

b.      Type 2: I talk to myself quite relentlessly. You are more afraid of yourself than anyone else.

Intensive Pronouns

Their spellings are same in form as reflexive pronouns but are used to stress on the subject–

Examples: -They themselves were unsure.

Note: To distinguish between reflexive and intensive pronouns is to remove the pronoun from the sentence – if the sentence still makes sense, the pronoun is intensive.

Examples:

1.      We ourselves would have never considered it an option.

2.      I have climbed The Himalayas three times myself.

Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns describe clauses. They are categorized into those used for

1.      People (who, whom, and whose)

2.      Things (which and that)

People pronouns are either subjective or objective and either restrictive or nonrestrictive.

Thing pronouns are either restrictive or nonrestrictive.


Interrogative Pronouns

These pronouns have the the same form as relative pronouns but are used to introduce a question instead. Examples:

a.       Which one do you want?

b.      Whose is this?

c.       Whom are you looking for?

d.      Who is it?

Demonstrative Pronouns

These four pronouns – this, that, these, those – are used to point to a specific noun or nouns and indicate a position relative to the speaker.

Example:  Are those the shoes you wanted? [Points to a specific pair in a specific location away from the speaker.]


Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite pronouns are considered indefinite because they do not refer directly to a clearly specified noun. While they often suggest a number or amount (some, all, everyone, few), the measure is not specific. These pronouns can be tricky because some of them can be both singular and plural.

Examples:

a. Someone has to take out the trash. (Singular)

b. Neither of the participants was comfortable. (Singular)

c. Most of the audience responds to this type of persuasion. (Plural)

d. Each of the students identifies a few of his/her favorite hobbies. (Singular; plural)


Reciprocal Pronouns



These pronouns are actually phrases made up of pairs of pronouns—one another and each other. These pronouns indicate a relationship between the individuals of the plural subject such that the individual members of the subject “take each other as their objects”. 

Example: Radha and Shayma are fond of each other.

 

Word(s) Formation - How to change word forms?

Word – a group of some meaningful alphabets is called a word. It must contain any one of the vowel letters or even a consonant with the vowel sound. “I” and “A” are exceptions because they complete and meaningful in single letter.

Words, which are, divided in different word classes according to their nature and uses like nouns, verbs, adverbs and so on and they can be interchanged in different words classes as required.

A word comes from a basic form, which is known as a root word.

We can word classes by many ways such as –

·         Joining two or more words

Ex: -       Blackboard (Noun)

Black + board

Black is an adjective while board is a noun.  

·         By changing the body of the root words

Ex: -       Advice - (Noun)

                Advise – (Verb) – There we can see the change in consonant.

 

·         With the help of various prefixes or suffixes

Ex: -       Usefulness (Noun)                                          Use (Verb) + ful + ness (suffix)

Misunderstood (adjective)                          Mis (Prefix) + understood (verb)             

 

These types of words can be grouped under three categories.

 

1.       Compound words: -                        formed by joining two or more words.

2.       Primary Derivatives: -                     formed by making some changes in the body of the root word.

3.       Secondary Derivatives: -                               formed by an addition to the beginning or at the end of the word.

 

Compound words

Compound Nouns


1.       Noun + Noun

Moonlight

2.       Adjective + Noun

Sweetheart

 

3.       Verb + Noun

Breakfast

4.       Gerund + Noun

Writing table

 

5.       Adverb/Preposition + Noun

Overcoat

6.       Verb + Adverb

Drawback

7.       Adverb + Noun

Income


Compound Adjective


1.       Noun + Adjective/ Participle

Sky-blue

 

2.       Adjective + Adjective

Lukewarm

 

3.       Adverb + Participles

Everlasting


Compound Verbs


1.       Noun + Verb

Typewrite

2.       Adjective + Verb

Whitewash

3.       Adverb+ Verb

Upset

Forming Noun from verb by adding: -ER, OR, ION, ING, MENT, AL


1.       Play + er = player

2.       work + er = worker

3.       sing + er = singer

4.       sell + er = seller

5.       collect + or=collector

6.        inspect + or = inspector

7.       act + or = actor

8.        sail + or = sailor

9.       connect + ion = connection

10.   attract + ion = attraction

11.   protect + ion = protection

12.   build + ing = building

13.   repair + ing=repairing

14.   move + ment = movement

15.   approve + al = approval


Forming noun from adjectives by adding: -NESS, DOM, TH, RY


1.       Weak + ness = weakness

2.       Fresh + ness = freshness

3.       Kind + ness = kindness

4.       Free + dom = freedom

5.       Wise + dom = wisdom

6.       True + th = truth

7.       Brave + ry = bravery

8.       Slave +ry = slavery

Forming adjective from nouns by adding: - FUL, LY, LESS, EN, OUS, ABLE, ISH


1.       Fear + ful = fearful

2.       Harm+ ful = harmful

3.       Mercy + ful = merciful

4.       Hope + ful = hopeful

5.       Week + ly = weekly

6.       Body + ly = bodily

7.       Year + ly = yearly

8.       Care + less = careless

9.       Use + less = useless

10.   Mercy +less = merciless

11.   Wool + en = woolen

12.   Silk + en = silken

13.   Gold + en = golden

14.   Danger + ous = dangerous

15.   Courage + ous = courageous

16.   Comfort + able = comfortable

17.   Value + able = valuable

18.   Fool +ish = foolish


 

Forming adverbs fro adjectives by adding: - LY, ILY


1.       Brave + ly = bravely

2.       Slow + ly = slowly

 

3.       Happy + ily = happily


 Forming adverbs from nouns by adding: - FULLY, ILY


1.       purpose + fully = purposefully

2.       Anger + ily = angrily

Forming nouns from noun by adding: - DOM, ER, HOOD, IAN, RY SHIP


1.       Village - village + r = villager 

2.       Farm – farm + er = farmer 

3.       Office -office + r = officer

4.       Boy – boy + hood = boyhood

5.       Music– music + ian = musician

6.       Library library + ian = librarian

7.       Slave – slave + ry = slavery

8.       Poet poet + ry = poetry

9.       Friend friend + ship = friendship

10.   Scholar scholar+ship=scholarship


History and Literature in the Elizabethan era : The Renaissance

Historical and literary changes that took place at the time of Queen Elizabeth The Renaissance in England somehow awoke from the long slee...