Showing posts with label English Grammar. Show all posts
Showing posts with label English Grammar. Show all posts

When and where do use capital letters?

Generally, we write each letter of the English alphabet as a small letter (abc...) or as a large or capital letter (ABC...). However, we cannot letters always in same manner. It is not good and right to write whole sentences in capitals. A sentence or paragraph written in capitals is very difficult to read.

When do we Use Capital Letters?

1. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letter for the personal pronoun 'I':

What can I do?

2. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letter to begin a sentence or to begin speech:

The man arrived. He sat down.

Suddenly Mary asked, "Do you love me?"

3. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letters for many abbreviations and acronyms:

G.M.T. or GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)

N.A.T.O. or NATO  (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

M.A. Master of Arts

4. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letter for the names of days of the week, months of the year, holidays:




5. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letter for names of countries, languages & nationalities, religions:

India, Pakistan

Japanese, English

Hinduism, Buddhism

6. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letter for people's names and titles:

Ram, William Shakespeare

Professor Jones, Dr Smith

Captain Kirk, King Henry VIII

7. We use the first letter of the spelling a capital letter for trademarks and names of companies and other organizations:

Amazon , Apple

Microsoft Corporation, Toyota

the United Nations, the Red Cross

8. We use the first letter of the spelling capital letter for places and monuments:

London, Paris, the Latin Quarter

the Eiffel Tower, St Paul's Cathedral

Buckingham Palace, the White House

Oxford Street, Fifth Avenue

Jupiter, Mars, Sirius

Asia, the Middle East, the North Pole

9. We use the first letter of the spelling for names of vehicles like ships, trains and spacecraft:

The Titanic

The Orient Express, the Flying Scotsman

10. We use the first letter of the spelling for titles of books, poems, songs, plays, films etc: If it contains more than one word, use the first letter capital in each of the words.

War And Peace

If, Futility

Like a Virgin

The Taming of the Shrew

The Lion King, Gone With The Wind

11. We use capital letters (sometimes!) for headings, titles of articles, books etc, and newspaper headlines:


Chapter 2:  WATER

Alphabets in (English Language)

Alphabets in (English Language)

Latin alphabet also called the Roman alphabet, the standard script of the English language and the languages of most of Europe and those areas settled by Europeans.

Total 26

Cursive is a style of writing  in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster, in contrast, to block letters. 

Phonetics Introduction - Why do spellings appear different from what we pronounce in English?

The study of linguistic sounds and symbols is called Phonetics.

The study of systems of sounds, often the sound system of a particular language is called Phonology


Linguistic sounds are produced by pushing air from the lungs out through the mouth, sometimes by way of the nasal cavity. The movement of the air can then be manipulated by the anatomy of the mouth and throat to produce different sounds. In the actual writing, the same sound may often be spelled in different ways.

Linguists use a phonetic alphabet called the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

Many IPA letters are the same as those of the English alphabet, so we place IPA spellings in square brackets to indicate that they are phonetic spellings.

Consonants Sounds

Consonants are produced by restricting and then releasing the flow of air in three ways: vibrating the vocal cords, changing the part of the anatomy, which restricts the airflow, and changing the extent to which the airflow is restricted.

Consonants with relatively little vibration of the vocal cords are called voiceless consonants.

Consonants with relatively more vibration of the vocal cords are called voiced.

Consonants fall into the following categories, depending on what part of the anatomy is used to restrict the airflow:

Labial                   Airflow is restricted with the lips.

Dental                   Airflow is restricted with the teeth.

Labiodentals        Airflow is restricted with the top teeth on the bottom lip (if both lips are used the 

sound is called bilabial).

Alveolar                Airflow is restricted by placing the tongue on the hard plate (alveolus) behind the 

top front teeth.

Palatal                  Airflow is restricted by placing the tongue on the soft palate behind the alveolus.

Velar                     Airflow is restricted by placing the tongue far back in the mouth.

Glottal                  airflow is restricted by tightening the folds in the vocal cords (glottis).

Consonants can also be categorized by the extent to which the airflow is restricted:

1.      Stop                     Airflow is stopped and released quickly.

2.      Fricative              Airflow is released gradually.

3.      Affricate              Airflow is stopped and released gradually.

4.      Nasal                    Airflow is channeled through the nasal cavity.

5.      Liquid                  Air flow is channeled around the sides of the tongue.

6.      Glide                    Airflow is only partially restricted (these sounds are often called semi-vowels).


Vowels are produced by directing the flow of air into different parts of the mouth. They can be adjusted by changing the position of the tongue, by rounding of the lips, and by the degree of opening of the mouth.

All vowels are voiced.

The position of the tongue can be described in terms of how far forward the tongue is and how high it is.

Vowels are categorized as follows, depending on the position of the tongue:

1.      Front        The tongue is in the front of the mouth.

2.      Central     The tongue is further back in the mouth.

3.      Back         The tongue is in the back of the mouth.

4.      High          The tongue is high in the mouth.

5.      Mid           The tongue is lower in the mouth

6.      Low          The tongue is low in the mouth.

All vowels can be described in terms of their location on both vertical and horizontal axes.

1.      If you pronounce the High and Mid Back Vowels, you will find that you round your lips. These are called rounded vowels.

2.      When the mouth is relatively more open, the vowel is called lax.

3.      When the mouth is relatively more closed, the vowel is tense.



Alliteration is a poetic technique in which the beginning sound is repeated in words for effect. Tongue twisters often use alliteration to create catchy phrases.

In this figure of speech, two or more words begin with the same letter or syllable.

Notice the effect of alliteration as you try to say the following tongue twisters:


1.      Potatoes, peas, and pumpkin are greengrocer's goods.

Here three words, in the beginning, begin with the letter 'P' and three words, in the end, begin with the letter 'g'.

2.      This miss is Sister Kissler.

Here 'is' pronunciation is repeated in 'this' 'is' and 'sister' and 'iss' is repeated in 'miss' and Kissler'.

Alliteration is the repetition of a speech sound in a sequence of nearby words.

The term is usually applied only to the consonants, only when the recurrent sound begins a word or a stressed syllable within a word.

In Old English Alliterative Meter(Having the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable), alliteration was the principal organizing device of the verse line, the verse is rhymed(Rhymed Lines - Correspondence in the sounds of two or more lines (especially final sounds)); having each line divided into two half-lines of two strong stresses by a decisive pause or caesura; and at least one, and usually both, of the two stressed syllables in the first half-line alliterate with the first stressed syllable of the second half-line.

In later English versification, however, alliteration is used only for special stylistic effects, such as to reinforce the meaning, to link related words, or to provide tone color and enhance the palpability of enunciating the words.

An example is the repetitions of the s, th, and w consonants in Shakespeare's

Sonnet 30:

When to thsessions of sweet silent thought

I summon up remembrance of things past,

I sigh the lack of many a thing I sought

And with old woes new wail my dear time's waste...

Alliteration Practice Example:

1.      Snakes slither on the sidewalk.

2.      The wind whistled through the willows.

3.      Magic markers can make masterpieces.

4.      Tommy tried to twist but tumbled.

5.      Greg grabbed the garnish from the graceful bowl.

6.      Six silly sailors swam south.

7.      Bobby bought a bunch of brown bananas.



A simile is a rhetorical figure expressing comparison or likeness that directly compares two things through some connective word such as like, as, so, than, or a verb such as resembles.

Although similes and metaphors are generally seen as interchangeable, similes acknowledge the imperfections and limitations of the comparative relationship largely than metaphors.

Examples:  Using 'as' - The use of 'as' makes the simile more explicit.

1.       She walks as gracefully as a cat.

2.       He was as hungry as a lion.

3.       He was as mean as a bull.

4.       That spider was as fat as an elephant.

5.       Cute as a kitten.

6.       As busy as a bee.

7.       As snug as a bug in a rug.

8.       Eyes as big as dinner plates.


Using ‘like’ - A simile can explicitly provide the basis of a comparison or leave this basis implicit. In the implicit case, the simile leaves the audience to determine for themselves which features of the target are being predicated.

It may be a type of sentence that uses 'as' or 'like' to connect the words being compared.

1.       She is like candy so sweet.

2.       He is like a refiner's fire.

3.       Her eyes twinkled like stars.

4.       He fights like a lion.

5.       He runs like a cheetah.

6.       She is fragrant like a rose.

7.       Gareth is like a lion when he gets angry.

8.       “For hope grew around me, like the twining vine,” (Coleridge - Dejection)

9.       "And the executioner went off like an arrow." -Alice in Wonderland


Sometimes similes are submerged, used without using comparative words ('like' or 'as').

Examples:   Without 'like' or 'as'

1.       "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? / Thou art more lovely and more temperate:" William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18

2.       "How this Herculean Roman does become / the carriage of his chafe." William Shakespeare, Antony, and Cleopatra' Act I, sc. 3.



Sentence Linkers/Linking Devices

A conjunction is a word that joins words or sentences together.

1.      He is honest and she is intelligent.  (Two sentences are connected here.)

2.      Three and three make six. (Two words are connected here.)


Conjunctions are words that join clauses together to make sentences, and tell how the meanings of the clauses relate to each other.


Kinds of conjunctions

  • A.    Coordinate Conjunctions
  • B.     Subordinate Conjunctions
  • C.     Correlative Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions 

They relate two Different words or two different sentences of Equal rank or status. (In Clauses, they connect only principal/independent clauses)
Such as: -         For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS)

Subordinating Conjunctions  

They connect subordinating clauses with other clauses.

Such as: - After, although, as, as if, as long as, as though, because, before, even if, even though, if, if only, in order that, now that, once, rather than, since, so that, than, that, though, till, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, while

Examples: -

1.      We are going out to meet him after we finish our work.

2.      While I was waiting in line for my turn, I was having my lunch.

3.      I love her because she is so cute.

Correlative conjunctions 

They are always to be used in Pairs.

Such as = Either … or, Neither…Nor, Both…. And, whether… or, not only… but also.

Conjunctive Adverbs

Conjunctive adverbs make up an even stronger category of conjunctions. They show logical relationships between two independent sentences, between sections of paragraphs, or between entire paragraphs.

Conjunctive adverbs are so emphatic that they should be used sparingly: however, when used appropriately, they can be quite effective.

Such as Also, Hence, However, Still, Likewise, Otherwise, Therefore. Conversely, Rather, Consequently, Furthermore, Nevertheless, Instead, Moreover, Then, Thus, Meanwhile, Accordingly

Examples: - If the fish is grilled, I will have that: otherwise, I might have the chicken.


They are closely related to conjunctive adverbs. Expletives convey no meaning of their own but instead serve only to emphasize the statement to which they are attached.  As such, then, they technically do not show a logical relationship like time or cause between ideas, and that fact prevents them from being treated as conjunctive adverbs.

Such as : -Of course, indeed, naturally, after all, in short, I Hope, at least, remarkably, in fact, on the whole, Overall, I Suppose, It seems, In brief, I think, clearly assuredly, definitely to be sure without doubt, for all that, in any event, importantly, certainly.

Use of Coordinating Conjunctions


·         To suggest that one work is sequential to another

Kamla sent mail in her application and waited by the call for a response.


·         To suggest that one work is the result of another

Rajesh heard the weather forecast and immediately went home.


·         To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another

Harsh is Smart and Stalin has a nice smile.

·         To reflect an element of surprise

Mumbai is a rich city and suffers from many elements of urban stain.


·  To reflect that one clause is conditionally dependent upon another (usually the first clause is an imperative)

Use your Credit card without care and you will soon find yourself deep in debt.


·         To suggest a kind of comment on the first clause.

Raveena became addicted to Gambling and that surprised no one who knew her.


·         To reflect a contrast that is unexpected in light of first clause

John lost a fortune in the stock market, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably.


·         To reflect in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied in a negative way

The club never invested foolishly, but used the services of some smart advisers.


·         To connect two Ideas with the meaning of with the exception of

Everybody but Jai Krishna was trying out for the team.


·         To suggest that only one possibility can be realized, excluding one or the other

You study hard for this exam or you will not get good marks.

·         To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives

We can cook dinner tonight, or we can just eat leftovers.

To suggest a refinement of the first clause

JDB College is the Premier Girls College in the district, or so it seems to JDB alumnae.

To suggest a restatement or correction of the first part of the sentence.

There are no tigers in this sanctuary, or so our guide tells us.


·         To suggest a negative condition.

 “ Do or Die”

·         To suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative

They must approve his political style or they would not keep electing him President.


The conjunction NOR is not used often as other, so it might fell a bit odd. It can be used with other negative expressions.

He is neither sane nor smart.


The word YET functions sometimes as an adverb. It can be used reflecting several meanings as - In addition, even, still, eventually, and as soon as now.

Jack plays basketball well, yet his favorite game is cricket.

Yet also functions as a Coordinating conjunction meaning like nevertheless, or but.


The word for is most often used as preposition, It is also used, as Coordinating Conjunction. Beginning a sentence with the conjunction for should be avoided. Its function is to introduce the reason for the preceding clause.

Most of the visitors were happy just relaxing under the shade, for it had been a long, dusty journey on the cart..


So, sometimes connects two independent clauses along with a comma, but sometimes it does not.

She has always been nervous in large gatherings, so it is no surprise that she avoids crowd.

Subordinating Conjunctions

·         Time: - when, whenever, till, until, before, after, as soon as, as, since, while.

 When I went to office, the peon was going to his home.


·         Cause or reason – as, because, since,

He is allowed to enter as he is invited by us.

·         Purpose – that, so that, in order that, lest

We eat that we may live.

·         Result or Consequence – so that, such that, that

The coffee is so hot that I cannot drink it.

·         Condition – If , Unless, provided, that, supposing

He will help you if you ask him.

·         Place – where, wherever, whither, whence

Let her go wherever she likes to go

·         Comparison – as…as, So…as, unluckiness

He is as strong as your brother is.

·         Concession  - though, although, yet, notwithstanding, however

She is poor yet she is trustworthy.

·         Manner –as, as though, so far as

He spoke as if he was drunk.

Copulative Conjunction

And, and… also, as well as, Both…and well, now

He came and wrote an application.

Alternative conjunction

Else, otherwise, either …or, neither…nor

He should join or he will be terminated.

Adversative conjunction

However, but, still, yet, only, nevertheless, while

He was not sincere however, he got promotion.

Illative (Inferential) Conjunctions

For, so, therefore

You are in power, so you are respected.

Some more important conjunction

  • Not only … but also…
  • Neither nor
  • Either  or
  • Both and
  • So That
  •  No sooner Than
  •  Hardly had… when
  • So soon as

Conjunctions: Who, whom, whose, which, when, where

·         Who 

I saw a woman, who wore a red sari.

·         Whom

He is the manager whom I met yesterday.

·         Whose

I know Suresh whose son passed PMT.

·         Which

I gave you a pen, which you have lost.

·         When

I was Talking bath when he came to office my.

·         Where

This is the house where I lived for three years.



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