Showing posts with label Literary History. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Literary History. Show all posts

History and Literature in the Elizabethan era : The Renaissance

Historical and literary changes that took place at the time of Queen Elizabeth

The Renaissance in England somehow awoke from the long sleep of the Dark Ages. Europe has always been an inactive and deteriorating society that has so far benefited from the promise of material and spiritual prosperity. There was a well-held belief that humankind is making progress toward perfection in the pursuit of a perfect life.

Renaissance means rebirth. The fourteenth to sixteenth centuries in Europe saw a break from understanding the subtle ways of life. Reputable landowners are losing their grandeur over the lower classes, as opportunities for growth and prosperity become evident in growing urban areas. As in Italy, the educated class regained the grace and strength of their old, pagan customs. Greek and Roman mythology and philosophy were the catalysts for a new wave of artistic flow. Sensible people have embraced the line of reasoning known as “mankind,” in which humans believed that they could be perfect in the absolute sense. The undisputed spirit of the times was a hope, a burning belief that life was developing for the first time in anyone's memory. Indeed, the vision of the Dark Ages and the Black Death was very new in the minds of the people and the promise of moving forward and departing from such horrific events was sincerely accepted. Several threads spanned the entire European Renaissance together within three centuries. The strong rise of nationalism, coupled with the early prosperity of democracy, was a common feature throughout the Continent. The first ideas of the middle class began to gain power in the cities, as trade and commerce became full-fledged businesses of their own. Fearing the spread of bad memories from afar, and people longing to leave their homes and see the whole world, international and global trade began to grow. In terms of products and resources, ideas also spread from one nation to another. Venice fashions quickly became fashionable in Paris and eventually in London. Speaking of the British Islands, the well-known practice of privileged young men who “travelled” the continent began during the Renaissance. The ideas these travellers bring back to their homelands will influence culture, government, literature, and fashion for many years thereafter. Until the world views Britain as a wilderness, devoid of culture and refinement. Even the English language did not get the status quo. The greatest English philosopher Thomas More published his Utopia in Latin, and the English translation appeared decades later. The most innovative in the Renaissance era was the printing press, which began in about 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg. New presses had long existed, but Gutenberg's design magnified the efficiency of printing in a way that permanently transformed the world of art, literature, and ideas. His greatest invention was the rapid production of portable typesets, meaning that new text sheets could be laid out and printed with much less effort than before. The renewable printing press allowed for faster and cheaper recycling of work. Indeed, it is not uncommon for literacy rates to see a modest increase in the decades following the construction of the media. The religious upheaval is known as the Protestant Reformation would not have been possible without the ability to make multiple copies of the text quickly and with little effort. Martin Luther's famous "95 Theses" spread like wildfire on Continental Europe. More than simple production, printing completely transformed the economy into a society of learning and learning. Now the books were no longer high places, and luckily. The effect of having easily accessible literature was almost as deep as the democratic declaration of the written word. Another overlooked feature of this new program is the effect it has on the learning process. Earlier, someone was reading a document aloud to a group of people. Traditionally, they memorize Bible stories or jokes and pass them on. The sudden increase in print, collaborative reading, and oral tradition gradually led to quiet, individual reading. At the time, quiet reading was considered unusual, and some observers were suspicious. However, the image of the one who joined the text in one trip to translate the image of the Renaissance. All nations in Western Europe experienced the rebirth of the Renaissance. In different nations, even in different cities in the same nation, the manifestations of Renaissance art and thinking were different. While in one region, buildings can be a visual aid for new creative forces, in other regions books can take a more prominent position. Everywhere, though, the rebirth of love and art has had a profound effect on the world around us. Although the Italian Renaissance is more familiar to readers, the Renaissance England edition of the text contradicts anything else of the time. Over the course of 1500-1660, the English Renaissance produced some of the world's most famous manuscripts. The spirit of hope, the infinite power, and the English stoic alphabet are all combined to produce first-order books. At the same time, England graduated from land not recognized by the “pagans” as the seat of power and commercial influence. This power was naturally translated into books that were bold, sweeping, innovative, and trending. Poets tried to form, and the actors revived and revived ancient Greek and Roman cultures. The most prominent types of English texts at the time of rebirth were poetry and drama. Among the various forms of poetry, which one may have found in England in the sixteenth century were lyric, leggy, grief, and the clergy. Toward the end of the English Civilization, John Milton composed his unique Paradise Lost, considered one of the greatest poems in the language. Expectations of style, theme, tone, and details of the plot were well established for each type of poem. Even a certain event required some kind of poetry, and they all understood these tried and true circles. Most of the time, the poetry of the day was intended to accompany the music. In any case, critics agree that the main purpose of the English Renaissance verse was to combine beauty with truth in words. English poetry of the day was popular, repetitive, and often betrayed by the subtle intellect. One factor that used to distinguish English letters from the Continent was the willingness to mix different types of hodgepodge, the experiment story. This style of imitation is shown in Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queen, a long poem that combines elements of love, tragedy, heroes, and shepherding into a fun and cohesive experience. The English court life and the views of the esteemed authorities greatly influenced artistic direction. Intimacy with a king or queen was desirable, but also dangerous. These letters show that court officials were extremely clever at their use of language, using double definitions, and cunningly defending their interests. Conflicts of words that a person may have heard in court naturally paved the way for poems and theatrical plays. Shakespeare's vivid form of communication, for example, had its genetic code in the English royal court. In the realm of drama, no one was more like William Shakespeare in terms of variety, quantity, and complexity of language. His story was a play on drama, from ancient Greek and Roman mythology to modern mythology of unrequited love. Shakespeare is known for his ability to distinguish between humour and tragedy, from a complex character study to a simple-hearted farce. He is equally honoured for the beautiful official structure reflected in all his plays. This extends beyond actions and scenes but also involves the emotions and the mind of the game's actions. More than anyone else, he elevated the English language to a level of splendour that previous generations did not think possible. Shakespeare’s nets show oral pyrotechnics that is rarely seen today, with images painted on top of each other in the form of a collage of nerves. Surprisingly, very few details about the life of a playwright are known today. Her uncertain history has led to many conspiracy theories, even to the point of questioning whether she was single. One of the great difficulties in providing creativity in any part of ancient literature is that copyright, in the modern sense of the word, did not exist. The author did not have his own names; the unpredictable nature of the Renaissance Theater in England gradually emerged from the attraction of the local festival to the true cultural centre. During the Middle Ages, nomadic actors' crews played role-playing games, especially live sermons, to entertain provincial audiences. In 1567, the Red Lion was built on the outskirts of London, one of the first commercial theatres. Right from the start, the court had its opponents. The local people despised the crowd and the noise of the famous houses, tourist attractions, and brothels that inevitably erupted nearby. Many viewed the theatre as an invitation to laziness, with children leaving their studies and staff leaving work to watch the games. Some find the story to be boring and bad. The Puritans, in particular, directed their barriers directly to the Elizabethan section. A growing number of Protestant groups, the Puritans feared that the dress and grooming of the theatre could lead to sexual misconduct. The sponsorship program was one way for talented and talented people to feed themselves. The manager was a wealthy independent freelancer who tasted good things and had a lot of money and attention from the artists who cared for that taste. In some cases, the sponsor would circulate poets and actors as mere hypocrisy. On the other hand, many zealots had a deep and genuine appreciation for the art of creation. In the view of the hungry artist who reaped the benefits of such giving, it did not matter in any way. Freedom to pursue human art to the end would certainly be a blessing in England during the 16th century. Real manuscripts, which have survived over time, testify to the value of the rich man's blessings. Usually, artists donate their works to managers who provide funding for their production. Alternatively, the author may seek the favour of a sponsor who is yet to release their wallet strings. There are even accounts for a single piece of literature that has been redesigned and distributed to several potential buyers, a more comprehensive approach that reflects the business acumen required for Renaissance artists. In many cases, artists had to devote much of their time to secular work in another lucrative profession and pursue their art as a hobby. Four hundred years have done little to change that unfortunate fact. The infinite hope and spirit of the Renaissance humanity could not continue indefinitely. By the middle of the seventeenth century, the search for human perfection had given way to decay, criticism, and import, which could have hindered art for a long time to come. In England, the rise of Puritanism, which itself is a branch of the Reformation philosophy put the brakes on the pursuit of knowledge and aesthetic endeavours.

Writers of the Renaissance Period

  • Thomas Campion (1567-1620)
  • John Donne (1572-1631)
  • Ben Jonson (1572-1637)
  • William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
  • Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593)
  • John Milton (1608-1674)
  • Spenser Edmund (1552-1599)
  • Sir Philip Sydney (1554-1586)
  • Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
  • Sir Thomas Wyatt the Elder (1503-1542)
  • Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618)
  • John Calvin (1509-1564)
  • Mary Wroth (ca. 1587- ca. 1651)

Changes In English language in Historical Events 1

Changes that occurred in English Language after Norman Conquest

The Norman Conquest changed the whole course of English language. French became the language of social prestige and status. French words entered the English lexicon. More than 10000 French words found their way into English words associated with government, law, art, literature, food, and many other aspects of life.

English language gradually disappeared as a written language, which resulted in the removal of borders on development of language; grammar became simplified as people started finding the simplest way to talk with people, who did not speak English as their first language.

 The pronunciation of English changed to some extent under the influence of French, as did the spelling. E.g. the old English ‘cw’, ‘sc’ and ‘c’ became ‘qu’, ‘sh’ and ‘ch’. The spelling of cwen changed into queen, scip to ship and scolde to should, English grammar took on  a few French structures , such as putting in adjectives after nouns in some expressions – attorney general, secretary general, surgeon general, . Since, Englishmen became desirous of learning the language of the ruling class, a large number of them learned French or Latin.

However, the Normans conquers on the other hand, had to learn English and translate it into Latin, since there was the need to understand English law , as a result , this period  saw an upsurge in the translations of English Material n to Latin.

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