How did Shakespeare try to immortalize his Friend W.H.?

Like as the Waves 

In most of the sonnets, Shakespeare referred to his friend a Mr. W.H. though his friend’s Identity is not cleared anywhere that whoever he may be. He might be Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, or Sir Philipp Sydney’s nephew, William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke.

Shakespeare is talking about the same friend W.H. in Like as The Waves. In the sonnet, the poet is saying that his verse in praise of his friend will make him, immortal despite the cruel hands of time. This poem seems inspired by Golding’s translation of Ovid’s 

Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore,

The very first opening line of the sonnet is introduced with the applied figure of speech simile. Where the poet compares the lives with the waves that come out of from the bottom of the sea and end at the shore.

So do our minutes hasten to their end;

In the second line, the poet said in his positive agreement format that the same way our lives within time continue and end. 

Each changing place with that, which goes before,

He says that nothing has a permanent place in this universe a thing comes and another takes its place after some time. 

In sequent toil, all forwards do contend.

A person in his life span works so hard to achieve the things that he desired all his life and he is feeling satisfied.

Nativity, once in the main of light,

The word nativity refers here to the birth when someone bore and become aware of his life.   

Crawls to maturity, wherewith being crown’d,

A person in his life after birth slowly grows, learns, achieves, and sometimes fails. Sometimes times award him with achievements.

Crooked elipses ’gainst his glory fight,

Time has its own way to perform its duty. The poet says that some bad planets with bad effects can hard and destroy a person‘s life. He has to face various obstacles during his lifetime.

And Time that gave doth now his gift confound.

A time comes in everyone’s life when he feels confused himself. Nobody can understand the ways of life and the way time plays a role in our lives.

Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth

It was time itself that gave us youth and now the time is taking it back. Time is always a continuous process that never stops and never ends.

And delves the parallels in beauty’s brow,

At a time the beauty of youth goes away and we become old and ugly with wrinkle everywhere on face same like earth looks when we delve it with plow. 

Rhyme Scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, gg 

The contribution of female poets of Romantic Age

The contribution of female poets of Romantic Age

Elizabeth Inchbald (1753-1821) 

English novelist, actor, and playwright, Elizabeth Inchbald was born in a small village called Standing field near Bury St. Edmunds in Suffolk, England in 1753. She was the eighth child of John Simpson, a farmer, and his wife Mary. Inchbald’s father dies early living the family to the care of her mother. Inchbald went to London in 1772 to seek her fortune on the stage. She struggled to find work because of her speech impediment. She married actor Joseph Inchbald in June 1772 and began working seriously as an actor. She made her first dramatic appearance on 4th September 1772, as the character Cordelia opposite her husband‘s King Lear in Shakespeare’s King Lear.

Plays

  • Mogul Tale or the Descent of the Balloon (1784)
  • Appearance is against them (1785)
  • I’ll Tell You What 1785
  • The Widow’s Vow 1786

Novels 

  • A simple Story (1791)
  • Nature and Art (1796)

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)

British Feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft was born In Spatial fields, London in 1759. Her Father Edward John Wollstonecraft was a tyrannical husband, who bullied his wife, Elizabeth Dixon, into a state of servitude. A weaver by profession, her father left his work, mismanaged his share of family inheritance, and engaged in futile attempts to become a gentleperson. After her mother’s death, Wollstonecraft left home in search of her own livelihood.

Works

  • Thoughts on the Education of Daughters (1787)
  • Original Stories from Real Life (1788)
  • Vindication of the Rights of Men (1790)
  • Mary A Fiction (1788)

Mary Wollstonecraft‘s Vindication of the rights of women published in 1792 is considered as one of the earliest texts of Western Feminism. It is partly structured as a response to several works on women education and female conduct written by men during the latter half of the 18th century, among the most significant of these was Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Emile or On Educations. She states that since childhood, women are taught to believe that they are inferior to men. They are taught to be docile and submissive, Characteristics such as meekness and self–sacrifice are included as feminine virtues, which lead to the subjugation of women.

Mary Hays (1759- 1843)

English novelist and feminist, Mary was born in Southward, Near London. She was born into a Baptist family to John and Elizabeth Hays. She lost her father when she was very young.

Works

  • Cursory Remarks on an Enquiry into the expediency and propriety of public worship 1792
  • Memoires of Emma Courtney (1792)
  • Appeal to Men of Great Britain In Behalf Of Women (1796)

Fanny Burney

English novelist and diarist Fanny was born as Frances Burney in King’s: Lynn, Norfolk, England in 1752. She was the daughter of Dr. Charles Burney, a musical historian and Estate Sleepe, her mother died, when she was only 9. Her father later married Elizabeth Allen, The wealthy widow of King’s Lynn wine merchant, who proved to be an overbearing stepmother. She was a writer, composing odes, plays, songs, farces, and poems at an early age.

Novels 

  • The History of Caroline Evelyn (1767)
  • Evelina: Or The History of a Young Lady’s Entrance into the World (1778)
  • Cecilia: Or, Memoires of an Heiress (1782)  

Non-fiction

  • Brief reflections relative to the French Emigrants Clergy (1793)
  • Memoires of Doctor Burney (1832)

Plays 

  • The Witlings (1779)
  • Edwy and Elgiva, (1790)
  • Love and Fashion 1799
  • The Woman Hater 1800-1801

Maria Edgeworth 1768 -1849

Anglo –Irish novelist Maria was born in Blackbourtan, Oxford shire, England in 1768. She was the second child of Richard Lovell Edgeworth and Anna Maria. Her father was a writer, scientist, inventor, and educationist, who married four times and had twenty-four children.

Works

  • Letters for Literary Ladies (1795)
  • Castle Rack-rent (1800)
  • Belinda (1801)
  • Leonora (1806)
  • Patronage (1814)
  • Harrington (1817)

Jane Austin 1775 -1817

English novelist was born at St Stevenson Rectory in Hampshire, England in 1775; she was the seventh child of reverend George Austen and Cassandra Leigh.

Works

  • Sense and Sensibility (1811)
  • Pride and Prejudice (1813)
  • Mansfield Park (1814)
  • Emma (1815)

 

Shakespeare’s plays are not gardens but a jungle.

Shakespeare’s plays are not gardens but a jungle.

William Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. He wrote most of his plays as ‘quarto texts’. A few of his plays were printed in his lifetime, though they appeared more voluminously after his death. His first collection of works as printed in 1623. We can say Shakespeare’s plays are not gardens but jungle in many senses such as in a variety of genres and themes and characters.

Romantic Comedies

His most comedies are the romantic type. The main theme of his comedies is love. In his comedies, a lover usually experiences a set of obstacles before they united. All conflicts get resolved at the end. His romantic comedies are all set in an imaginative world far away from the dull and dreary world of everyday life. There is a cardinal characteristic of Shakespeare’s romantic world of the union of realism, fantasy, and philosophy.” With humor, Shakespeare deals with serious issues.   

  •     All’s  Well That Ends Well
  •     The Comedy Of Errors
  •     Love’s Labour Lost
  •     The Merchant Of Venice  
  •     The Merry Wives Of Windsor

Tragedies

Shakespearean tragedy is primarily concerned with one person the tragic hero. A tragic hero is a person of the high social estate, raised above the rest. He undergoes suffering because of his tragic flaw or the error of judgment.

  •     Romeo and Juliet
  •     King Lear
  •     Othello
  •     Macbeth
  •     Hamlet
  •     Cymbeline

Roman plays

All these plays are set in Rome deal with similar subjects and make use of the same source- North’s translation of Plutarch’s lives. Dominika Klenova states that Shakespeare uses his source material as a framework, which helps him develop his own conception of treating drama out of biography. He also develops his idea of the Roman character and elaborates on him at both the ‘national ‘and individual level.

  •     Julius Caesar
  •     Antony and Cleopatra
  •     Coriolanus

Problem plays

While most of his plays fall into the above-cited categories of tragedies, comedies, or histories, there are some plays of Shakespeare do not neatly fit into any of these categories.

  •     All is well that ends well
  •     Measure for measures
  •     Troilus and Cressida

Historical plays

According to Michael Hattaway, Shakespeare’s history plays are related to history mainly by offering representations of historical figures and the creation of theater out of historical events. Shakespeare’s primary source for his history plays was Raphael Holinshed Chronicle of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

  •     Richard II
  •     Richard III
  •     Henry IV
  •     Henry V

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